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Lokhu ukwethulelwa ngokuziqhenya i-www.lawyer.co.za   - iwebusayithi ehamba phambili ekunikeza ukwaziswa kwamahhala mayelana nabameli nezomthetho eNingizimu Afrika namuhla. Cwaninga ngezomthetho noma uthole iNkampani Yabameli.

Ungafunda konke okuqukethwe ngezansi noma ukudawunilode lapha – phawula: kuzothatha idatha yakho engu-1 Mb. Kunoma yikuphi, sethemba ukuthi uzokuthola kuzuzisa futhi kujabulisa ukufunda lokhu!

Isethulo

Kwaphela iminyaka engaphezu kwamashumi amabili, kusukela ngo-1941 kuya ku-1961, uNelson Mandela eyilungu lenhlangano ehleliwe yezemthetho eNingizimu Afrika: efunda engaphansi kommeli, umsizi wommeli, engummeli ozimele futhi esebenzisana nabanye. Ngo-1939, eneminyaka engu-21, lapho eqala izifundo zakhe eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare, wafika ngemoto yeBambela-bukhosi uJongintaba – ngo-1964, ngaphezudlwana nje kweminyaka engu-25 kamuva, wayezofika eRobben Island ehamba ngebhanoyi lezempi.

Lena indaba kaNelson Mandela, uMmeli ofundele ezoMthetho nomlweli woguquko oyingcweti!

UMandela Ummeli

UNelson Mandela wazalwa ngomhlaka-18 Julayi 1918 eMvezo, umuzi omncane ogwini loMfula iMbase, esifundeni saseMtata, futhi wachitha isikhathi sobusha bakhe esiningi eQunu. Umndeni kayise wawungowasebukhosini futhi wakha umkhandlu wenkosi yabaThembu. Uzalo lwawo luhamba luze lufike eNkosini uNgubengcuka (c1790-1830) owahlanganisa ubukhosi babaThembu, obabunamakhosi ahlukahlukene. UNelson Mandela wayeneminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye lapho uyise, uHenry Gadla eshona. Ngaphambi nje kokuba ashone, uyise wahlela ukuba uMandela omncane ayohlala neNkosi Enkulu YabaThembu uJongintaba, owayeyibambela eBukhosini Obukhulu.

 

  rondavel 300 220   jongintaba 300 220  
  Urondo eNdaweni Enkulu    Umnakekeli kaMandela  
  eMqhekezweni lapho kwakuhlala khona    uJongintaba Dalindyebo,    
  esemncane, enakekelwa   owamkhulisa, kulandela    
  uJongintaba    ukushona kukayise   
         

Lapho eneminyaka engu-16 waba yingxenye yomkhosi wasentabeni wokusokwa okwamenza waba yindoda. Ngokushesha ngemva kwalokho wafakwa emotweni yebambela-bukhosi waya eKolishi LaseClarkebury, elalixhaswe iziThunywa Zevangeli ZaseWeseli ngo-1825 lapho iNkosi YabaThembu, uNgubengcuka, azinikeza indawo. Elapho uMandela wabonakala engumfundi othembisayo, wathola iSitifiketi sakhe samaBanga Aphansi eminyakeni emibili ngaphambi kwesikhathi esijwayelekile.

Unyaka wakhe wokugcina esikoleni okuhlalwa kuso wawungo-1938 e-Healtdown, kwathi ngo-1939, eneminyaka engu-21 waba umfundi eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare, eyayixhaswe iziThunywa Zevangeli ZaseMpumalanga Koloni ngo-1916 futhi yayinabafundi abangaba ngu-150 ngaleso sikhathi. Wenza iziqu ze-BA, efunda isiNgisi, uMthetho Wezesayensi Yemvelo Nenhlalo Yabantu kanye nokuQondiswa Kwezindaba Zendabuko, okwakuzomenza akwazi ukuqashwa uMnyango Wezindaba Zendabuko ePitoli. Kwakuyinto engenzeka ngalezo zikhathi futhi uMandela wazithola esengutolika wesiXhosa nesiNgisi, mhlawumbe esebenza neMantshi. Ungane wakhe oseduze eFort Hare kwakunguKaizer Matanzima owayengumzala kaMandela nowayengummeli oyinhloko owenza okuhlukile. Wathola iziqu zakhe ze-BA eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare efunda ngomthetho wamaRoma futhi waqala inkampani yakhe ngo-1940 kwathi ngo-1944 wazuza umklomelo we-Cape Law Society ngenxa yemiphumela yakhe ezivivinyweni zokuFanelekela Ukuba Ummeli, nakuba wagcina engazange asebenze njengommeli.

 

Ngasekupheleni kuka-1940, ngemva konyaka efikile, uMandela waba yingxenye yombango wabafundi – wayekhethelwe eMkhandlwini Wabafundi kodwa ngenxa yokuvukela wasenqaba leso sikhundla. Ngenxa yalokho waxoshwa nokwamdumaza kakhulu uJongintaba, owayemi kwelokuthi abuyele eFort Hare ngoNyaka Olandelayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho uJongintaba wayelungiselela uMandela nomfowabo uJustin imishado ehleliwe ngakho bobabili babaleka – bantshontsha izinkomo zikaJongintaba ezimbili, bazidayisela usomabhizinisi wendawo. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathathwa imoto eya eGoli eyayihamba ummeli wendawo futhi bafika eGoli ngomhlaka-16 Epreli 1941.

 

  cousin KD Matanzima 300 220   wife evelyn 300 220  
   UNelson Mandela      Unkosikazi kaMandela wokuqala,   
  nomzala wakhe,     u-Evelyn  enamadodana abo   
  u-KD Matanzima   amabili uThembi noMakgatho –  
       ngasekupheleni kwawo-1940   
         

Umuntu ophakathi kwabokuqala uNelson nomfowabo uJustin abaya kuye kwakunguDkt Xuma, owayesanda kukhethwa njengomongameli we-ANC nowayengumngane womndeni. Wabathumela kuMnu. Wellbeloved nowabathumela ukuba bayosebenza e-Crown Mines. UJustin wanikezwa umsebenzi womuntu osaqeqeshwa futhi uMandela wasebenza njengomqaphi wakusihlwa. Wanikezwa isigqoko esiyindilinga, iwisa nempempe. Kwafika enye ithelegramu ivele kuJongintaba ecela induna ukuba ithumela lezi zelamani ekhaya. UMandela wayenesibhamu esidala epotimendeni lakhe elahlolwa unogada lapho nje sebelungela ukuhamba. Ngenxa yalokhu wabekwa icala, wafakwa ejele futhi wahlawuliswa kancane.

 

UMandela waya kohlala nomzala wakhe, uGarlick Mbekene, futhi watshela izihlobo zakhe ngesifiso sakhe sokuba ummeli. UMbekene wamethula kuWalter Sisulu naye owayezalelwe ezweni labaThembu, futhi wayengumholi we-ANC egatsheni lendawo, engumholi wekhwaya, futhi eyilungu lenhlangano yezinsizwa ezingamaXhosa. USisulu wayethengisa izindlu, kodwa hhayi ngendlela esikuqonda ngayo lokho namuhla. I-Alexandra yamiswa njengelokishi lendabuko ngo-1912 futhi ngenxa yalokho yashiywa ngaphandle kwesakhiwo soMthetho Womhlaba Ka-1913, owawenqabela abaNsundu ukuba bathengise noma bathenge imizi ezindaweni zabelungu. Usomabhizinisi waseJalimane wayebolekisa ngemali futhi inkampani yabameli i-Witkin, Sidelsky & Eidelman yabhalisa amabhondi ayevikela izimali ezibolekiwe. USisulu wayehola ngokuthola amakhasimende. UMandela watshela uSisulu ukuthi ufuna ukufundela ukuba ummeli, ngakho uSisulu wamethula kummeli uLazar Sidelsky, owavuma ukuba afundele ubumeli ngaphansi kwakhe, (namuhla kwaziwa ngokufundela ukuba ummeli ngokwenza inkonzo yomphakathi) ngesikhathi enza izifundo zakhe ebe esebenza.

 

  dr alfred xuma 300 220   walter sisulu 300 220  
  UDkt. Alfred Xuma   uWalter Sisulu  
         

Kwakungavamile ngalezo zinsuku ukuthi inkampani yabameli inikeze umuntu onsundu umsebenzi ophathelene nezomthetho – ezweni lonke kwakunabameli abaneziqu abangu-18 ngo-1946 ngesikhathi lapho kwakungabaNsundu abangu-2% kuphela abahlala eGoli ababengathola ilungelo lokusebenza njengabameli ngokusemthethweni. UMandela wabhalisela ukufunda e-UNISA, nokwakhokhelwa uSisulu futhi waqala ukusebenzela inkampani i-Witkin.

Umuntu wokuqala onsundu owamukelwa njengommeli enkantolo yaseNingizimu Afrika kwakungu-Alfred Mangena (mhla zingu-14 Julayi 1910) walandelwa uPixley ka Isaka Seme (mhla zingu-22 Disemba 1910) noGeorge Dixon Montsio ngo-1911. Ngo-1960 kwakunabameli abansundu abangu-60 eNingizimu Afrika okungenani oyedwa kwabathathu babo babezinze eTranskei ngaleso sikhathi. Izikhungo eziqondisayo ekuLondolozweni Kwendabuko okungenani zazinamathuba afanayo nalawo ayetholakala eGoli lapho imithetho yobandlululo yasemadolobheni yayenza ukusebenza kungaqiniseki. Abansundu Abachumayo, bahlangana eBunga, baba nendawo ethi bona eMtata futhi bavulela isizukulwane esisha sabameli abaNsundu amathuba amahle kakhulu abawenza lo msebenzi. Ezinye izikhungo ezaziqhuba umsebenzi wezomthetho kwabaNsundu zaziseGoli naseThekwini.

Maphakathi no-1942 uMandela wahlala mahhala endaweni ehlala izisebenzi zasemayini futhi wahlala izinyanga ezimbalwa emzini kaWalter Sisulu e-7372 Orlando West. Kulapha lapho ahlangana khona no-Evelyn Mase, futhi bashada ngomhlaka-5 Okthoba 1944, ngemva ‘kokuthandana isikhashana.’ UMandela wayeneminyaka engamashumi amabili nesithupha u-Evelyn enengamashumi amabili nantathu futhi yayingekho imali yelobolo neyedili lomshado. UThembekile wazalwa ngomhlaka-23 Febhuwari 1946. U-Evelyn wayehola amaphawundi angu-18 ngenyanga emsebenzini wakhe wokuba umhlengikazi futhi lezi zithandani zahamba zayohlala e-8115 Orlando West zikhokha irenti engu-17d 6din ngenyanga cishe ngasekuqaleni kuka-1947. UbakwaMandela bathola ingane yesibili, intombazane egama layo uMakiwaze. Wayephila ngokugula kusukela ezalwa futhi akazange alulame, washona ngemva kwezinyanga ezingu-9, ngo-1948. Indodana yesibili, uMakgatho, yazalwa ngo-Agasti 1950, futhi ngo-1954 kwazalwa enye indodakazi uMakaziwe, nowaqanjwa lelo gama kukhunjulwa indodakazi eyashona isencane eminyakeni emihlanu ngaphambilini.

 

Impilo njengommeli osafunda yayinzima nemali ingekho. Umholo wakhe wokuqala kwakungamaphawundi amabili ngenyanga neyakhula yaba amaphawundi angu-8 ngenyanga ngoDisemba 1946. Wayenesudi eyedwa ayayiphiwe uMnu. Sidelsky eyayidinga ayithunge njalo ukuze ihlale isesimweni. Ngezinye izikhathi wayehamba ngezinyawo amamayela amahlanu eya emsebenzini ukuze onge imali yebhasi khona ezothenga ngayo ukudla. Ngawo-1940, uma ufundela ukuba ummeli, kwakudingeka ufunde iminyaka emihlanu uphase neziVivinyo Zokuba Ummeli futhi yilokho uMandela akwenza ukuze abe ummeli.

  sidelsky bregman mandela   percy yutar 300 220  
  Abangane abadala –    Izitha ezindala -  
  ayefunda naye   enomshushisi waseRivonia  
  uNat Bregman    uPercy Yutar  
  ‘noThisha Omkhulu’      
   wangaphambili      
  i uLazar Sidelsky      
         

Omunye owayesebenzela uSidelsky kwakungomunye umfundi uNat Bregman, osenkolweni kaMarx nowayengusomahlala owayesebenza emsakazweni ngezinye izikhathi nokwathi kamuva waba nenkampani yakhe yabameli. UMandela wamchaza njengomngane wakhe wokuqala ongumlungu, wayeya emihlanganweni naye futhi edla naye ngezikhathi zekhefu lasemini. Wayefunda ngokuzimisela okukhulu kusihlwa futhi ngo-1943 wabuyela eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare eyokwethweswa iziqu zakhe ze-Bachelor of Arts.

Ngo-1943 uMandela waphinde wabhalisa eWits ukuze enze izifundo zakhe ze-Bachelor of Laws – i-LLB, ngethemba lokuba ummeli. Wayengafundi ngokugcwele futhi ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguye yedwa umfundi onsundu emkhakheni wezomthetho futhi wayengakaze abe khona umuntu onsundu ongummeli enkantolo ephakeme eJohannesburg. UDuma Nokwe waba ngummeli wokuqala onsundu ukuba ilungu leNhlangano Yabameli ngo-1956. Enyuvesi wahlangana noJoe Slovo, uRuth First, uBram Fischer, uGeorge Bizos, u-J.N. Singh no-Ismail Meer, phakathi kwabaningi. NgoDisemba 1946 uMandela wafaka isicelo sokuboleka imali engamaphawundi angu-250 ku-Bantu Welfare Trust, athi wayeyidingela ukufunda ngokugcwele unyaka wakhe wokugcina enza i-LLB. Wayithola le mali. Ngokusho kwakhe, uMandela wathi wayengumfundi odonsa kanzima – kwamthatha iminyaka eyisithupha efunda i-LLB futhi wehluleka kathathu ukuphumelela unyaka wokugcina. NgoDisemba 1949 wabhalela iSikhulu Somkhakha Wezomthetho, uSolwazi Hahlo emcela ukuba amnikeze ithuba lokugcina ukuze abhale izifundo eyengaziphumelelanga. Emhlanganweni okhethekile owawungomhlaka-14 Disemba 1949 iSikhulu Somkhakha nezinye izisebenzi eziyisithupha zebhodi lalo mkhakha basichitha isicelo sakhe, ngoba wayefeyile izifundo ezintathu onyakeni wakhe wokugcina.

Ngo-1952, uMandela waphinde wabhalisela ukwenza i-LLB eWits, kodwa lokho kwakhanselwa phakathi nonyaka ngenxa yokungayikhokhi imali yenyuvesi. Nakuba manje ayesesebenzela i-Hyman Basner njengommeli, kuyaphawulela ukuthi uMandela wayengenayo imali yokukhokhela izifundo zakhe, kodwa kulokhu kubukeka sengathi inyuvesi yayizimisele ukuzwelana naye.

Lapho uthisha omkhulu, uHumphrey Raikes, etshelwa ummeleli wenyuvesi ngokukhanselwa okuqubekayo, watusa ukuba uMandela anikezwe ithuba lokubonana nomqondisi omkhulu, uGlyn Thomas, okwakukhalwa kuye nowayengase abe necebiso nosizo okukahle. UMandela akazange asamukele leso simemo — ngaleso sikhathi wayegxile kakhulu eMkhankasweni Wokuvukela, futhi ngokushesha wasungula eyakhe inkampani yabameli ebambisene no-Oliver Tambo

 

  final year LLB Wits 1949 600 328  
  UMandela engumfundi eNyuvesi YaseWits lapho   
  ayengafundi ngokugcwele kusukela  
   ngo-1943 kuya ku-1946 nangokugcwele  
   ngo-1947 kuya ku-1948.  
  USolwazi Hahlo (phakathi)  
     

 

Ngo-1948, uDaniel Francois Malan waba uNdunankulu futhi waqala ukuphoqelela ubandlululo olwedlulele. Umbhali u-JM Coetzee uluchaza ngale ndlela elandelayo ubandlululo: ‘Ubandlululo kwakuyisimiso esiphoqelela ukuhlukaniswa kwabantu ngobuhlanga noma ngobuzwe, esenziwa sasebenza iqembu elikhethekile, elizichaza lona ukuze liqinise ukubuswa amazwe angaphandle ngokukhethekile ukuze liwabambe liwaqinise amagugu awambiwa phansi.’ Leli qembu lalakhiwa abelungu kuphela (ngaleso sikhathi bebizwa ngabantu baseYurophu). Umbhali Wemidlalo u-Athol Fugard wabhala: ‘Ngoba ngokuqinisekile, akukho ndawo namuhla emhlabeni – futhi ngiyaqiniseka ukuthi lokhu kuyiqiniso ngendlela efanayo nangesikhathi esedlule – okwake kwaba nomphakathi lapho ifilosophi yezepolitiki ebusayo, esekelwa futhi isizwe iqembu elibusayo lenkolo yobuKristu, eye yaholela abesilisa nabesifazane ababukeka bekhaliphile ebuphukuphukwini obungachazeki nobudida ingqondo – okwenza kumangaze nakakhulu ukusabalala kwalesi simo sobuhlanya. Ayikho indawo ekuphileni kwethu kwangasese nokuvuleleke kubantu, engaphazanyiswanga yile nto.’

‘Umama’ wesishaya-mthetho sobandlululo (njengoba sasaziwa kanjalo ePhalamende ngo-1990) kwakunguMthetho Wokubhaliswa Kwabantu Ka-1950, owahlukanisa bonke abantu baseNingizimu Afrika ngobuhlanga. Umthetho Wezindawo Zamaqembu, nawo ongoka-1950 wawuveza izindawo okungahlala kuzo izinhlanga ezithile kanti uMthetho Wamandla Abantu Ka-1951 waphoqa ukuba kube neziNdawo Zabansundu (Bantustans) okwenza kwaba nezigidi zabantu abangebona abelungu ukuba bangabi izakamuzi zezwe abazalelwe kulo, nokuthi babhekwe njengezigebengu uma bengenawo ‘amapasi.’ NgoMashi 1963 uMnu H J Botha wakhuluma ngale ndlela elandelayo ngomthetho wezindawo zabansundu eNdlini Yokuhlangana. ‘Njengoba nje okhokho bethu abangamaDashi bakha izindonga ezivikela amanzi adlulayo eZeeland ukuze bagcine uLwandle Lwasenyakatho lukude nezwe loyise, namuhla sakha izindonga zesiko kuyo yonke iNingizimu Afrika ukuze sizigcine zikude izidlamlilo ezinsundu.’ NgoMashi 1963 uMnu C M Warren we-United Party wacaphuna umzala kaMandela, iNkosi uKaizer Matanzima eNdlini Yokuhlangana ngale ndlela elandelayo: ‘Kimi, intuthuko ehlukile iyilokho uMagna Carta ayikho kubantu baseBrithani. Ngifisa ukuqinisekisa abantu ukuthi abaholi baseTranskei bangabalwa phakathi kwabantu abahlakaniphile emhlabeni.’

 

 

 

  boxer   old fort  
  UMandela wayezigcina   IFort Endala, lapho uMandela    
   engumqemane       aboshwa wagcinwa   
  ngokusebenza       khona kabili  
  njengomshayi sibhakela.   ngowo-1950.  
  Uthi wayesijabulela   Manje iyingxenye yasakhiwo    
   ‘isici sobuhlakani    seNdunduma  
  salo mdlalo.’     Yesishayimthetho.    
         

Mhla zingu-18 Febuwari 1953 uNobhala Womnyango Wezobulungisa, uMnu AEM Jansen, wamemezela ukuthi kwakungumthetho wesikhathi eside woMnyango Wezobulungisa ukwethula ubandlululo ezinkantolo zeNyunyana, futhi ngo-1960 iMantshi Ephakeme YaseCape Town yamemezela ukuthi wonke amagumbi asezinkantolo kulelo dolobha anamatafula ahlukile abameli abangebona abelungu. Njengommeli uMandela wayesazobona ukubandlululwa ngobuhlanga nokucwaswa okwengeziwe ngokuthi acelwe ngokuphindaphindiwe ukuba aveze ikhadi lakhe ‘elimHlonza Njengommeli’ noma ezinye iziMantshi zimbuze ngokufaneleka kwakhe ukuba ummeli – into eyayingavamile ukwenzeka kubameli abangabelungu.

Ngo-1951, eseziphothulile izifundo zakhe e-Witkin, uMandela wasebenzela inkampani yabameli i-Terreblanche and Briggish lapho achitha khona isikhathi esingangonyaka. Wabe esejoyina inkampani yabameli i-Helman and Michel lapho achitha khona isikhathi esingangezinyanga ezintathu. Ukuze akwazi ukuhola imali eyanele nokunakekela umndeni wakhe uMandela waqala ukufundela izivivinyo ezizomenza afaneleke njengommeli nowakwazi ukuziqeda. Ngokwemibiko ye-Incorporated Law Society of the Transvaal (yangaphambili), uMandela wafakwa ohlwini lwabameli ngoMashi 1951. I-Law Society yaqala ukuba khona ngo-1892 ibizwa nge-De Ingelijfde Orde van Procureurs en Notarissen. Ngo-1902 yaba i-Incorporated Law Society of the Transvaal, futhi elinye lamalungu ayo kunguMahatma Ghandi, owafakwa ohlwini lwabameli ngo-1903. Ngo-1975 yethiwa elinye igama yaba i-Law Society of the Transvaal futhi namuhla yaziwa nge-Law Society of the Northern Provinces. Ngemva kokuphumelela izivivinyo zakhe, uMandela wasebenza e-HM Basner njengommeli ophelele. I-Hymie Basner yayiwasekela ngentshiseko amalungelo abaNsundu. Ngokusho kukaMandela ‘izinyanga eziningi ngisebenza ngangivame ukuba senkantolo ngimele amakhasimende amaningi ale nkampani aNsundu.......ngemva kwesipiliyoni engasithola lapha ngase ngikulungele ukuzimela.’

 

Ngokwemibiko ye-Law Society, uMandela wazisa i-Law Society ngomhlaka-5 Septhemba 1952 ukuthi manje usesebenza njengommeli ozimele. Unobhala wakhe kwakunguZubelda Patel owahamba noMandela esuka e-HM Basner. Ngalesi sikhathi u-Oliver Tambo wayesebenzela inkampani yabameli eyayaziwa nge-Kovalsky and Tuch futhi uMandela wayejwayele ukumvakashela lapho ngezikhathi zekhefu lasemini. Ngokwemibiko ye-Law Society, uMandela wabazisa ngomhlaka-4 Disemba 1953 ukuthi wayesesebenzisana no-Oliver Tambo. URuth Mompati wabajoyina ngalowo nyaka njengonobhala wezomthetho. 

 

  OliverTambo300 220   mandela lawyer img 300 220  
  U-Oliver Tambo    UNelson Mandela   
         

Kwakuyinkampani yokuqala yabameli abansundu abasebenzisanayo eNingizimu Afrika futhi yayaziwa nge-Mandela and Tambo Attorneys.

Nakhu okushiwo uMandela encwadini yomlando wakhe ethi Long Walk to Freedom:

‘Kusukela ekuqaleni i-Mandela and Tambo yayinamakhasimende amaningi kakhulu. Sasingebona abameli abaNsundu okuwukuphela kwabo eNingizimu Afrika kodwa sasiwukuphela kwenkampani yabameli abaNsundu. Kubantu abaNsundu, sasiwukuphela kwenkampani abangayisebenzisa. Ukuze sifike emahhovisi ethu ekuseni sasihamba phakathi kwesixuku sabantu emihubheni, ezitebhisini nasegunjini lokulinda elincane emahhovisi ethu.

Ngasheshe ngakuqaphela lokho okushiwo i-Mandela and Tambo kubantu abaNsundu abavamile. Yayiyindawo abangeza kuyo bathole ukulalelwa ngesineke nabangasebenzisana nayo ngokuphumelelayo, indawo ababengasoze babuyiselwa emuva futhi kudlalwe ngabo kuyo, indawo ababengazizwa beqiniseka ngempela ukuthi bazomelwa abadoda anesikhumba esifana nesabo. Yileso isizathu esangenza ngaba ummeli kwasekuqaleni, futhi umsebenzi wami wawungenza ngizizwe ngiqiniseka ukuthi ngenze isinqumo esifanele.’

Izikhathi zokusebenza kule nkampani yalaba ababambisene zazisukela ku-8.00 kuya ku-17.00 bejwayele ukuvala emini futhi behamba bobabili beyodla isitshulu. Lapho bobabili besayodla isidlo sasemini babejwayele ukubuya sekunolunye uyide lwabantu olubalindile. Nsuku zonke uMandela wayeshayela imoto yakhe enemibala emibilli eluhlaza okotshani yohlobo lwe-Oldsmobile (ayeyibiza ngenkunzimalanga yakhe ye-Oldsmobile) esuka e-Orlando eya e-Chancellor House, egqoke isudi enebhantshi elinezinkinombo ezisagolide ezifaswa ngapha nangapha esifubeni ethungwe u-Alfred Khan, owayephinde athunge amasudi kaHarry Oppenheimer. UMandela no-Oppenheimer kungenzeka ukuthi babenomthungi oyedwa, kodwa babenemibono engafani. UHarry Oppenheimer, owayeyilungu le-United Party ePhalamende eDolobheni LaseKimberley, watshela i-Cape Times ngomhlaka-26 Julayi 1956: “Kubalulekile, nokho, ukuba ingxenye enkulu yokuhlukaniswa komphakathi nezakhamuzi ilondolozwe iminyaka eminingi ezayo, ngoba umuntu wase-Afrika ‘usaphila ngesidala kakhulu ngokwezepolitiki, isiko nenkolo yakhe.’ Uqagula ukuphela kokuhlukaniswa kwabantu, kodwa kusazodlula izizukulwane eziningi ngaphambi kokuba lokho kwenzeke, ngenxa yokuthi ama-Afrika kwakusadingeka akhuliswe ngezindlela zaseYurophu.” 

 

UMandela wayengummeli ohamba phambili ngakho konke, nakuba enkantolo ngezinye izikhathi ayejwayele ukunyakazisa umzimba njengokungathi uyalingisa emdlalweni weshashalazi futhi enokweqisa. Uzakwabo u-Oliver Tambo wayehluke ngokuphelele – ethula, ecabangela futhi ecabanga ngokujulile. Ngamazwi akhe, uMandela wathi wayehluleka ukugcina kahle amaphepha omsebenzi nokunakekela izindaba zezimali, kuyilapho uTambo ayenakisisa futhi ecophelela. Ngokho bobabili njengoba besebenzisana bavumelana ukuthi umsebenzi omningi kaMandela uzoba ukunakekela amacala enkantolo kuthi uTambo anakekele umsebenzi wasehhovisi. Ngenxa yokuthi umsebenzi kaMandela wawulinganiselwe eNkantolo Kamantshi yesifunda saseJohannesburg nokwakubangelwa ukuvinjelwa kwakhe wayengakwazi ukusingatha amacala asezinkantolo ezingaphandle kwalezi zindawo. Ngakho uTambo kwakumelwe enze lowo msebenzi ngenxa yalokho umsebenzi wabo waphazamiseka.

  mandela and moroka 300 220   burning of passes  
  Phakathi noMkhankaso Wokuvukela    Umkhankaso Wokuvukela -   
  ngo-1952, enoDkt Moroka   kushiswa amapasi  
         

Ngo-1950 uHulumeni waphasisa uMthetho Oqeda Ubukhomanisi ngaleyo ndlela uqeda i-Communist Party, ngaleso sikhathi eyayinamalungu angaba ngu-2500. Kwaqokwa owayezobhekelela lokhu kuqedwa ukuze engamele ukuvalwa kwezinhlangano zobuKhomanisi nokwakha uhlu lwabantu abangamaKhomanisi, ababengamaKhomanisi nabasekela ubuKhomanisi. Ngo-1958 owayebhekelele ukuqedwa kwe-Communist Party wakhipha amagama abantu abangaba ngu-600 abangaphansi kwalo Mthetho ayefaka phakathi igama likaWalter Sisulu noNelson Mandela. Ngo-1968, ngesikhathi bedonsa izigwebo zabo eRobben Island, laba bangane abakhulu ngokuphumelelayo bafaka isicelo enkantolo becela ukuba amagama abo akhishwe kulolu hlu.

 

Umkhankaso Wokuvukela Imithetho Engenabo Ubulungisa waqala ngomhlaka-26 Juni 1952. NgoDisemba 1952 uNgqongqoshe Wezobulungisa wakhipha isaziso esenqabela uMandela ukuba abe khona kunoma imuphi umhlangano okhona esifundeni sikamantshi izinyanga eziyisithupha, futhi waphinde wenqatshelwa ukuhlala kunoma iyiphi indawo yeNyunyana ngaphandle kwasifunda sikaMantshi SaseJohannesburg. Amaphoyisa amisa lo mkhankaso oqhubekayo ngokubopha abaholi bawo abaningi, kuhlanganise uMandela, owabekwa icala ngaphansi koMthetho Oqeda Ubukhomanisi. Babengamashumi amabili ababengabasolwa, futhi wawumkhulu kakhulu umsindo enkantolo kangangokuba kwadingeka ukuba imantshi icele umongameli we-ANC, uDkt Moroka (owayethathe isikhundla sikaDkt Xuma njengoMongameli we-ANC ngo-1949) ukuba axoshe leso sixuku, futhi wenza kanjalo. Bonke abasolwa batholwa benecala lokubhebhezela ubuKhomanisi futhi bathola izigwebo ezilengisiwe. UJaji Rumpff owayengamele leli cala wathi abasolwa babenxenxe ngokuqhubekayo abavukeli ukuba balandele ‘isenzo esinokuthula nokuthi bagweme ukudlame lwanoma iluphi uhlobo.’ Ngomhlaka-20 Juni 1949 uNgqongqoshe Wezobulungisa, u-CR Swart wathi emkhandlwini obusayo: ‘Yebo, izimantshi namjaji ethu aqeqeshelwe ukubona ukuthi ‘yiqhinga’ leli lapho kwenzeka okuthile, futhi ngiye ngaqaphela ukuthi iningi lalaba Bantu Bendabuko lizama ukwenza sengathi limsulwa, futhi alimsulwa ngendlela okubonakala sengathi limsulwa ngayo.’

 

  suppression of communism trial   trial support 300 220  
  Abaholi abangamashumi amabili     balabo ababekwa abacala   
  balabo ababekwa abacala    Ecaleni  
         

Ngenxa yaleli cala, i-Transvaal Law Society yafaka isicelo sokuba igama likaMandela likhishwe ohlwini lwabameli. Leli cala lalalelwa eNkantolo Ephakeme futhi uMandela wamelwa usihlalo weNhlangano Yabameli EJohannesburg, uWalter Pollak. Inkantolo yasenqaba lesi sicelo yathola nokuthi, nakuba izenzo zakhe zingabhekwa njengezibucayi, wayezimisele ukusiza abantu bakubo abangebona abelungu. Inkantolo yathi lesi sizathu asanele ukuthi kungakhishwa igama lakhe ohlwini. Ngokuvumelana ne-Incorporated Law Society of theTransvaal v Mandela 1954 (3) SA 102 (T), inkantolo yaphinde yathola ukuthi angakhishwa kuphela ohlwini uma akwenzile kumenza angakufanelekeli ukuba sohlwini lwalo msebenzi ohloniphekile. Impikiswano yaqhubeka futhi, ekucabangeni okuyiphutha kokuthi kungumsebenzi wenkantolo ukujezisa ummeli otholwe enecala. Lesi sicelo sachithwa.

Ngomhlaka-25 kuya ku-26 Mayi 1955, abantu abangaba ngu-3000 bafika eMhlanganweni Wabantu owabanjelwa eKliptown lapho kwaphasiswa khona i-Freedom Charter. Eminye futhi imikhankaso ebalulekie ngaleso sikhathi kwakungumkhankaso weziNdawo Zabasentshonalanga (ukukhishwa ngokhahlo) nomkhankaso owawumelene ne-Bantu education (imfundo yaBantu Abansundu).

 

NgoLwesithathu ekuseni, ngomhlaka-5 Disemba 1956, kwabonakala ‘isenzo samaphoyisa esimangalisayo eNyunyaneni,’ njengoba amaPhoyisa, ephethe amaphepha agunyazwe ngokusemthethweni asayinwe iMantshi YaseJohannesburg, ngobuningi ayethelekela abaholi bezepolitiki abaningana futhi ababopha ngecala lokuvukela elisezingeni eliphezulu futhi batshelwa ukuba babuyele enkantolo bazolalela icala labo eFort, iJele LaseJohannesburg Elikhulu, ngomhlaka-19 Disemba 1956. UNelson Mandela no-Oliver Tambo babephakathi kwabasolwa – iCala Lokuvukela Umbuso njengoba lalaziwa kanjalo ladonsa iminyaka eminingi futhi laba nomthelela omubi kakhulu emsebenzini wobumeli abambisene kuwo.

 

  passes   proof  
  UNelson Mandela phakathi    Umbuso wethula   
  nomkhankaso owawumelene    izinto ezingu-10 000   
  namapasi abesifazane     ezazizosetshenziswaekuphenyeni     
      ngemibuzo ukulungiselela icala   
         

Ukuphenya ngemibuzo okulungiselela icala okwase kuthathe isikhathi eside kwaqala ngomhlaka-19 Desemba 1956. Umbuso wawuthi i-Freedom Charter yakhiwa i-ANC, i-SAIC, i-SACP ne-COD nokuthi inezinyathelo zokugumbuqela umbuso nokumisa umbuso wobukhomanisi; nokuthi abanye babasolwa babenze izinkulumo ezigqugquzela umsebenzi wokwenezela okufanele wenziwe iphalamende ukusekela le njongo, ngokwesibonelo, uguquko olwenziwa ngodlame nokuchithwa kwegazi. Omunye ummeli kwabamele abamangalelwa, uVernon Berrange QC, ukuphikisa kwakhe kwakuthi icala lokuvukela umbuso elibelwe laba abangu-156 liwuzungu lwezepolitiki njengelabantu abacindezelwa umbuso phakathi nenkathi yokuPhenya Ngemibuzo noma icala lomlilo waseReichstag eJalimane. Abameli babamangalelwa baveza ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi abamangalelwa “babeyizisulu zezindaba zepolitiki kulabo ababengabashushisi.” Wathi, “leli akulona icala elijwayelekile, uma ubheka indlela ababoshwe ngayo abamangalelwa.” Amanye amalungu oPhiko Olukhethekile (Special Branch) lwe-CID avuma lapho abameli babamangalelwa bewahloma imibuzo ukuthi i-ANC yayijwayele ukugcizelela ukuthi “umzabalazo wayo awunalo udlame.” Ukuphenya ngemibuzo ukungiselela icala kwaphela ngoSepthemba 1957, futhi amacala ayebekwe abantu abangu-64 ababehlanganisa u-Oliver Tambo, nomongameli we-ANC u-Albert Luthuli ahoxiswa. Icala lalilokhu lihlehliswa unyaka nonyaka futhi ngoMashi 1961 uJustice Rumpff wakhipha isahlulelo, wabathola begenacala bonke abamangalelwa. Lokhu kwakusekelwe ekutheni ‘uHulumeni wehluleka ukufakazela ukuthi wawulawulwa amaKhomanisi nokuthi abashushisi babehlulekile kufakazela ukuthi uMhlangano wawuhloselwe ‘ukusebenzisa udlame’ ukuthola abakudingayo.’

 

  song of protest   luthuli and tambo  
  UMandela ephakathi nendawo    U-Albert Luthuli no-Oliver Tambo  
  ngesikhathi kuculwa ingoma   - Bobabili bakhishwa eCaleni   
   yokukhalaza, eHholo LaseDrill,   Lokuvukela Umbuso  
   eGoli – ngo-1956     ababebekwe lona ngo-1958   
         

NgoJanuwari 1958 uMandela wafaka isicelo sokudivosa u-Evelyn enkanto, futhi idivosi yaphethwa mhla zingu-19 Mashi 1958. Ngokwemigomo yedivosi eyakhishwa inkantolo, u-Evelyn wasala nomuzi owawuse-8115 Orlando. Waphinde wathola netayitela lomhlaba uMandela ayewuthengile eMtata, yasala ngakuye impahla eningi, futhi wathola isamba semali engamaphawundi angu-50. Waphinde wanikezwa ilungelo lokugcina izingane ezincane ezintathu nemali yesondlo engamaphawundi angu-15 nyanga zonke ukuzikhulisa nokukhokha imali yesikole. NgoJuni 1958 uMandela wakhululwa izinsuku eziyisithupha emthethweni owawumenqabela ukwenza okuthile futhi washada noWinnie eBizana mhla zingu-14 Juni 1958. UWinnie waboshwa okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 1958, ngemva kokujoyina uphiko lwabesifazane be-ANC e-Orlando esitelekeni somphakathi futhi wagciwa amasonto amabili. UZenani wazalwa ngomhlaka-5 Febuwari 1959 futhi uZindzi wazalwa ngomhlaka-23 Disemba 1960. Imithetho yasejele yayingazivumeli izivakashi ezineminyaka engaphansi kwengu-16, okwenza uMandela waba nobuhlungu obukhulu ngesikhathi esejele.

UJohn Vorster waqokwa njeNgqongqoshe Wezobulungisa ngo-1960. NjengoMandela, uVorster wayengummeli owayeke waboshwa phakathi kuka-1942 no-1944 eKoffiefontein ngenxa yezinkolelo zakhe zezepolitiki. UVorster wayekhule waze waba uJenene ophikweni lwezempi lwe-Ossewabrandwag, nakuba ayethi wayengakaze enze into ebangela umonakalo. Wayejwayele ukufunga ethi ‘uzocoboshisa’ amakhomanisi futhi ngokushesha ngemva kokuqokwa kwakhe wethula ‘umthetho wokuboshwa izinsuku ezingu-90,’ lapho umuntu ayengase aboshwe izinsuku ezingu-90 ngaphandle kokuthweswa icala.

 

Ngomhlaka-21 Mashi 1960 kwenzeka isibhicongo saseSharpeville futhi ngokuvumelana noMthetho Wezinhlangano Ezingemthetho, inhlangano ye-PAC ne-ANC zavalwa. Kwakhishwa umthetho wesimo esibucayi owawuzothatha izinsuku ezingu-156 – ngesinye isikhathi kwaboshwa abantu abangu-21 000 eModder B abanye baboshelwa kwamanye amakamu.

 

  state of emergency   nelson winnie zindzi 300 220  
  Aphreli 1960:   Disemba 1960:  
  Kwakhishwa uMthetho Wesimo      UNelson noWinnie Mandela   
  Esibucayi – iButho eGoli    nendodakazi yabo yesibili uZindzi   
         

Ngo-Okthoba 1960, umbuso kaVerwoerd waba nokhetho lwabelungu kuphela ukuze izwe lenziwe i-republic (izwe labantu). Iningi lakusekela lokho. Usuku lokumemezela izwe njengeZwe Labantu lwaqondaniswa nomgubho wenyunyana weminyaka engamashumi amahlanu nanye, mhla zingu-31 Mayi 1961. NgoMayi 1961 futhi ngemva nje kwezinsuku eziyishumi kuphele iminyaka emihlanu yomthetho wesibili omvibhelayo, uMandela wabonakala engqungqutheleni okuthiwa i-All-In Africa eyayisePietermaritzburg, eyayihanjelwe abantu abangaba ngu-1 400.

 

Bacela ukuba kube ‘nomthetho-sisekelo wentando yeningi ongacwasi ngobuhlanga’ eNingizimu Afrika futhi baphoqa ukuthi kube nomhlangano omkhulu kazwelonke wabameleli abadala abangabesilisa nabesifazane abalinganayo, bazo zonke izinhlanga namasiko. Lo mhlangano wakha isisekelo sohulumeni wentando yeningi ngokuphelele, uMandela etshela izihambeli. Ngokushesha uMandela wazibonakalisa engumuntu okwaziyo ukumela izindaba zomphakathi i-ANC eyake yamazi. Lapho kutheleka amaphoyisa, uMandela nabanye abaholi bacasha kuleso sakhiwo.

 

  all in conference   fake passports 300 220  
  Ekhuluma eNgqungqutheleni   Iphasiphothi-mbumbulu   
   Ye-All- in ePietermaritzburg   kaMandela  
   - ngoMayi 1961   ezibiza ngoDavid Motsamayi  
         

Amaphoyisa ezokulondeka, ayethe “azoqela bonke abaholi abangebona abelungu lapho bevela,” aqala umkhankaso wokuthungatha uMandela nayesebenzisana nabo. Waqhubeka inyanga yonke, kodwa kwakuqabukela kudlule usuku igama likaMandela lingahambi phambili kwabezindaba. Kwakushayelwa abahleli bamaphephandaba izingcingo, futhi uMandela wayelokhu aziwa nakakhulu eNingizimu Afrika, futhi wayeba nemihlangano eyimfihlo nezintatheli. Ezifihlile nalapho engazifihlile, uMandela wayebonakala kakhulu – futhi edlula phambi kwawo amaphoyisa. Nokho izwi lokuthi abangaphumi emakhaya aliphumelelanga ekuphazamiseni ngokugcwele izingqondo zabantu abaningi ababengenandaba nezepolitiki.

Ngomhlaka-8 Januwari 1961 uMandela wazisa i-Law Society ukuthi manje usesebenza njengommeli osizayo. Ngomhlaka-7 Juni 1961 i-Law Society yaziswa uMandela ukuthi wayengasasebenzi njengommeli osizayo kodwa ukuthi wayesezokwenza ‘imisebenzi ethile’ eNkantolo Kamantshi. Ngomhlaka-5 Julayi 1961 i-Law Society yaziswa inkampani yabameli eseGermiston i-H Davidoff and Herman ukuthi uMnu. Mandela useyekile ukusebenza njemmeli. Lokho kwaba isaziso sokugcina i-Law Society eyasithola sivela kuMandela njengommeli – manje owayesezokwenza umsebenzi ohluke ngokuphelele.

Esigamwini sokugcina sonyaka ngo-1961 uMandela, uSisulu nabanye abaholi be-ANC namalungu enhlangano yamakhomanisi bakha “Umkhonto Wesizwe” ukwenza umsebenzi wezempi ohloliwe. Ngasekupheleni kuka-1961 ezingxenyeni eziningi zezwe, kwamiswa amakamu kwaqhunyiswa namabhomu ezindaweni ezazihlonziwe. UMandela wayebonakala manje anyamalale manje ezindaweni eziningi eNingizimu Afrika futhi abezindaba babembiza “nge-Pimpernel (uhlobo oluthile lwembali) Emnyama”. Wahlala isikhathi esithile endaweni encane eRivonia, enza sengathi usebenza egadini noma ungumshayeli. NgoJanuwari 1962 kwakufanele aphinde ahlangane nalowo ayesebenza naye, u-Oliver Tambo, eTopiya, lapho uTambo ayethunyelwe khona ukuba amise i-ANC yangaphandle

 

  algeria 300 220   rivonia sleeping quarters bed 300 220  
  UMandela ese-Algeria ngo-1962 -   Izindawo ayelala kuzo    
  evakashele izikhulu   eRivonia   
  zombutho wezempi   ngesikhathi engumbaleki   
         

UMandela wakhishwa ngesinyenyela eNingizimu Afrika ehamba ngogwaqo iLobatsi oseBotswana, wayesethatha indiza eya e-Addis Ababa. Ngokwedayari yakhe uMandela wayebhekwa njengesivakashi sikahulumeni futhi abaholi abanjengoJulius Nyerere, uHabib Bourguiba, uSekou Toure, uLeophold Senghor, uBen Balla waseNigeria noWilliam Tubman waseLiberia ‘bamphatha ngendlela esezingeni eliphezulu.’ ELondon wahlangana noHugh Gaitskell we-Labour Party, noJo Grimmond we-Labour Party. UHaile Selassie waseTopiya wanikeza uMandela iphasiphothi-mbumbulu enegama likaDavid Motsamayi, owayeyikhasimende enkampanini yabameli i-Mandela and Tambo. UMandela wasebenzisa leli gama-mbumbulu lapho ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika.

Ngomhlaka-5 Agasti 19 62 uMandela waboshelwa ngaphandle kwaseHowick, eKZN ezenza umuntu oshayelela omunye – wayevela emhlanganweni ayewubambe noLuthuli, ezombikela ngohambo lwakhe lokuvakashela amazwe omhlaba.

 

NgoMayi 2016 i-Sunday Times yaveza ukuthi uDavid Rickard, owayeyiSekela Lenxusa Le-US eThekwini nowayesebenzela i-CIA, wavuma ukuthi nguye owakhipha ulwazi olwaholela ekubanjweni kukaMandela.

 

  cecil williams   mandela traditional dress 300 220  
  UCecil Williams waboshwa    Wayegqoke kanje   
  kanye noMandela mhla    ecaleni lakhe  
   zingu-5 Agasti 1962   ngo-Okthoba 1962  
         

Icala likaMandela lokubhebhezela isiteleka nokuphuma ezweni engenayo iphasiphothi laliseNkantolo Yesefunda SaseJohannesburg futhi watholwa enecala. Wagwetshwa iminyaka emihlanu ebhadle ejele, wabe esethunyelwa eRobben Island, lapho avalelwa yedwa. NgoJuni 1963, kwaba nezenzo zokucekela phansi ezingaphezu kuka-200 ezenziwa eNingizimu Afrika. Ngomhlaka-11 Julayi 1963 amaphoyisa athatha impahla eseRivonia, eyayinamaphepha amaningi abandakanya uMandela nabakhi bozungu. Wasuswa ejele walethwa eRivonia futhi, ngasekupheleni kwecala watholwa enecala kuwo wonke amacala amane ayebekwe wona futhi wagwetshwa udilika ijele.

Ihhovisi e-Chancellor House lacekelwa phansi umlilo ngo-1960 futhi lokhu kanye nemisebenze yezepolitiki eyayikhula ngamandla kwenza kwangaba lula ngabo ukuqhubeka nokwenza umsebenzi wobumeli futhi  yavalwa. Ngo-2011 lapho lesi sakhiwo sesizodilizwa, sathola imali yokusilungisa engu-7 million wamarandi ivela ku-Johannesburg Development Agency.

Amahhovisi amathathu enkampani yabameli azoba umtapo wolwazi onezincwadi zamacala ezomthetho asingathwa yile nkampani ezifakwe kuyikhompuyutha.

Imnyuziyamu izoba sesitezi esiphansi futhi lokhu kuzohlanganisa izincwadi zamacala asenkantolo, izithombe ezingazange zinyatheliswe esikhathini esidlule, imithetho evimbelayo – konke okuhlobene nomsebenzi we-Mandela and Tambo Attorneys.

U-Advocate George Bizos, umngane nommeli omdala kaMandela wayeyisimenywa esikhethekile lapho kwethulwa lezi zakhiwo ezivuselelwe futhi wathi: Ngiyajabula ngesinyathelo esithathwe iDolobha sokuvuselela lesi sakhiwo; siyisakhiwo esiphilayo, indawo ephilayo kamhlonishwa uNelson Mandela, u-Oliver Tambo, uDuma Nokwe, uMendi Msimang, uGodfrey Pitje nabanye.  

 

  chancellor house restored 320   office mandela tambo 320  
  I-Chancellor House     Indawo yokwamukela  
  ngemva   izivakashi namahhovisi
   kokuvuselelwa   kaNelson Mandela no-Oliver Tambo
       

Kwakungesikhathi elindele isigwebo ecaleni laseRivonia lapho abhala futhi waphasa izivivinyo zakhe zokuqala ze-LLB njengomfundi ofunda engaphandle owabhalisa ngeNyuvesi YaseLondon. Ngo-1967 lapho eseRobben Island wayesenza unyaka wakhe wokugcina lapho ephazamiseka futhi. Umsebenzi wakhe waba nzima kakhulu lapho uhulumeni ngo-1970 uvala izincwadi eziqhamuka phesheya ayezithola ngenxusa laseBrithani.

Ngo-1974, wacabanga ngokuqedela i-LLB yakhe eWits, wenza inyuvesi ukuba imphendule ngokuqapha nangokomthetho kunokuzwelana naye. Ngaleso sikhathi, uMnyango Wezamajele wavala ukuxhumana kwakhe neWits futhi wamenqabela ukuqhubeka nezifundo zakhe ze-LLB, kungaba ngeLondon, iWits noma i-Unisa.

Ngenxa yalokho, uMandela waphoqeleka ukuba athathe izifundo zomuntu oqalayo futhi wabhalisela ukwenza i-BCom (kwezoMthetho) e-Unisa. Ekugcineni, ngo-1981, umphathi emkhakheni wezomthetho e-Unisa, uSolwazi Willem Joubert, wakhuluma nohulumeni ngokungabi nangqondo kokuqhubeka nokwenqabela uMandela ukuba enze i-LLB, futhi wakwazi ukubhalisela i-LLB e-Unisa, owagcina eyithole ngo-1989, sekuphele iminyaka engu-46 eyibhalisele okokuqala eWits.

 

Abameli abaningi bawabheka amacala kaNelson Mandela angokomthetho nahlobene nalokho ngesikhathi eboshiwe. Inkampani yabameli eseCape Town i-Bernadt, Vukic, Potash & Getz (eyayaziwa nge-Frank, Bernadt & Joffe) yahlanganisa umsebenzi waphakathi kuka-1966 no-1990. Ngo-2004 i-Himan Bernadt yethula amafayela angokomthetho amayelana noMandela ku-Centre of Memory. Ngokuphindaphindiwe, uMandela wayethatha indaba ayidlulisele enkantolo lapho amagunya ephula noma ehluleka ukulandela imithetho eshaywe yiwo, futhi la mafayela enkampani abonisa ukuzimisela kukaMandela ukubekela amagunya inselele esebenzisa zonke izindlela ezikhona.

 

  daughters   mandela mothers pain 1  
  Amadodakazi    Umama kaNelson Mandela -  
   kaNelson Mandela   uNoqaphi Nosekeni,   
  noWinnie Madikizela:    ongowesithathu emakhosikazini   
  uZindzi noZenani   amane kaHenry Gadla   
         
         

Ngomhlaka-5 Disemba 2013, uNelson Mandela wadlula emhlabaeni eneminyaka engu-95. Ngosuku olulandelayo i-The Law Society of South Africa, egameni lamalungu ayo ayisithupha yakhipha isitatimende esilandelayo.

‘Emhlabeni wayengungqa-phambili, emndenini wakhe nasesizweni sethu, engubaba, kodwa emsebenzini wobumeli wayeyisisekelo sezimiso wonke ummeli azifisa ukuphila ngazo: ukubuyisana, ubulungisa ekuhlalisaneni nokuhlonipha izindlela zokuphila ezivikelwa uMthetho Wamalungelo.

Njengabameli sizizwa sihloniphekile ngokuthi uMnu. Mandela wakhetha ukusebenza ezinhlwini zethu. Yena, ekanye no-Oliver Tambo, bavula inkampani yabameli abansundu yokuqala ezweni, okwalethela abantu ababengenathemba ithemba nesithunzi, okwacabela isizukulwane samanje sabameli indlela eya phambili.’

Ifa likaMandela labhalwa okokuqala ngo-2004 lachitshiyelwa ngo-2008.

Unkosikazi kaMandela wesibili, uWinnie Madikizela-Mandela, akafakwanga efeni. Yena noMandela badivosa ngo-1996.

Ngo-2014 abameli baWinnie Mandela bafaka amaphepha enkantolo athi umuzi wawuthola ngesikhathi besashadile noMandela futhi ungowakhe ngokuvumelana nemigomo yamasiko abaThembu. Ngo-Aphreli 2016 iNkantol Ephakeme YaseMthatha yasichitha lesi sicelo wakhokha nezindleko. Ngo-Agasti 2016 wadlulisela icala ku-SCA ukuze kushintshwe lesi sinqumo.

NgoMayi 2016 kwaphinde kwaphothulwa konke ukwabiwa kwefa likaNelson Mandela. Ababengamele zonke izinto uGeorge Bizos noDikgang Moseneke balichaza ngendlela elandelayo ifa likaMandela:

UMachel uzothola izindawo ezine laba ababeshadile ababengabanikazi bazo ngokuhlanganyela eMozambique. Uzophinde athole izimoto zabo, ubucwebe abuthola lapho beshada nayo yonke imali ekuma-akhawunti asebhange noma etshalwe ezikhungweni zabo zezimali.

UMachel noMandela babeshade ngelungiselelo elihlanganisa amafa. Wayengunkosikazi wakhe wesithathu. Izingane uMachel azithola ngesikhathi esengunkosikazi wowayengumongameli waseMozambique uSamora Machel, uJosina noMalengane Machel, ngamunye wathola u-R3m.

Washiyela ngayinye yezingane eziyisithupha uMachel azithola emshadweni owandulele u-R100 000. UMachel wanikezwa izinsuku ezingu-90 ukunquma ukuthi uzolisebenzisa yini ilungelo lakhe lokuthatha isigamu sefa likaMandela, uMoseneke wathi walisebenzisa.

Imizi kaMandela eseHoughton, eJohannesburg, eCape Town, eQunu naseMthatha eMpumalanga Koloni yashiywa ku-trust yomndeni.

 

Amalungu omndeni ayezosebenzisa le mizi emihlanu ukuze ahlale kuyo kuye ngesidingo.

 

  house at victor verster   retirement home at qunu  
  Umuzi osemagcekeni eJele   Indlu yangaphambili uMandela  
  eVictor Verster   athathela kuyo umhlala-phansi eQunu  
         

Imali yahlukaniswa ngendlela elandelyo:

 

  • Izingane uMandela azithola kumkakhe wokuqala u-Evelyn, uMakgatho Mandela noMakaziwe Mandela, zathola u-R3.5m no-R3.3m ngokulandelana.
  • Izingane zikaMakgatho, uMandla, uNdaba, uMbuso no-Andile Mandela, ngayinye yathola u-R1.1.
  • Izingane zikaMakaziwe - uDumani noTukwini Mandela, u-Adjao Amuah noKweku Amuah – ngayinye yathola u-R1.1m.
  • Izingane zikaThembekile Mandela, uNdileka noNandi Mandela, ngayinye yathola u-R3.3m efeni. UThembekile indodana endala uMandela ayithola ku-Evelyn.
  • Izingane zikaMadikizela-Mandela, uZenani Mandela-Dlamini noZindzi Mandela, ngayinye yathola u-R3m.
  • Izingane zikaZenani - uZinhle, uZaziwe and uZamaswazi – ngayinye yathola u-R100 000.
  • UBambatha, uZondwa, uZwelabo noZoleka, okuyizingane zikaZindzi, ngayinye yathola u-R100 000.
  • Umzukulu kaMandela, uZozuko Mandela, okuyingane kaZamaswazi, wathola u-R100 000 efeni.
  • Abayisishiyagalolunye, ababesebenza eduze noMandela, kuhlanganise nomsizi wakhe uLa Grange, ngamunye wathola u-R50 000 efeni.
  • Izikhungo zezemfundo – iNyuvesi YaseWitwatersrand neNyuvesi YaseFort Hare – ngasinye sathola u-R100 000.
  • I-Qunu Secondary School eMpumalanga Koloni ne-Orlando West High School eSoweto, eGauteng, ngasinye salezi zikole sathola u-R100 000. Lezi zikhungo zazizosebenzisa le mali njengemifundaze.
  • I-ANC izothola imali eyisilinganiso esiphansi sika-10% nesilinganiso esiphezulu sika-30% ezimalini ze-NRM Family Trust.

Ummeli nomngane kaMandela uGeorge Bizos wathi le fa libonisa indlela uMandela ayengenabugovu ngayo.

"Izifiso zakhe kule fa ziwukufingqwa kwezifiso zakhe ekuphileni. Uze wabela nezikhungo zemfundo. Wayengenabo nhlobo ubugovu,” kusho uBizos owayehlengezela izinyembezi ngemva kokufunda ifa.

 

 

 

  mandela pic 1   mandela s favourite 300 220  
  Kwaphela isikhathi eside umhlaba    UMadiba enomunye   
  ungayazi indlela uMandela    ‘wabantu’ abathandayo  
  ayebukeka ngayo.   Uthini uMadiba   
   Le indlela umdwebi    lapha?  
  owayecabanga ngayo   Isinqumo esakho!  
         

SIYABONGA NGOKUFUNDA KWAKHO

 

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Ungafunda konke okuqukethwe ngezansi noma ukudawunilode lapha – phawula: kuzothatha idatha yakho engu-1 Mb. Kunoma yikuphi, sethemba ukuthi uzokuthola kuzuzisa futhi kujabulisa ukufunda lokhu!

Isethulo

Kwaphela iminyaka engaphezu kwamashumi amabili, kusukela ngo-1941 kuya ku-1961, uNelson Mandela eyilungu lenhlangano ehleliwe yezemthetho eNingizimu Afrika: efunda engaphansi kommeli, umsizi wommeli, engummeli ozimele futhi esebenzisana nabanye. Ngo-1939, eneminyaka engu-21, lapho eqala izifundo zakhe eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare, wafika ngemoto yeBambela-bukhosi uJongintaba – ngo-1964, ngaphezudlwana nje kweminyaka engu-25 kamuva, wayezofika eRobben Island ehamba ngebhanoyi lezempi.

Lena indaba kaNelson Mandela, uMmeli ofundele ezoMthetho nomlweli woguquko oyingcweti!

UMandela Ummeli

UNelson Mandela wazalwa ngomhlaka-18 Julayi 1918 eMvezo, umuzi omncane ogwini loMfula iMbase, esifundeni saseMtata, futhi wachitha isikhathi sobusha bakhe esiningi eQunu. Umndeni kayise wawungowasebukhosini futhi wakha umkhandlu wenkosi yabaThembu. Uzalo lwawo luhamba luze lufike eNkosini uNgubengcuka (c1790-1830) owahlanganisa ubukhosi babaThembu, obabunamakhosi ahlukahlukene. UNelson Mandela wayeneminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye lapho uyise, uHenry Gadla eshona. Ngaphambi nje kokuba ashone, uyise wahlela ukuba uMandela omncane ayohlala neNkosi Enkulu YabaThembu uJongintaba, owayeyibambela eBukhosini Obukhulu.

 

  rondavel 300 220   jongintaba 300 220  
  Urondo eNdaweni Enkulu   Umnakekeli kaMandela  
  eMqhekezweni lapho kwakuhlala khona uMandela    uJongintaba Dalindyebo, owamkhulisa,  
  esemncane, enakekelwa   kulandela ukushona  
  uJongintaba    kukayise   
         

Lapho eneminyaka engu-16 waba yingxenye yomkhosi wasentabeni wokusokwa okwamenza waba yindoda. Ngokushesha ngemva kwalokho wafakwa emotweni yebambela-bukhosi waya eKolishi LaseClarkebury, elalixhaswe iziThunywa Zevangeli ZaseWeseli ngo-1825 lapho iNkosi YabaThembu, uNgubengcuka, azinikeza indawo. Elapho uMandela wabonakala engumfundi othembisayo, wathola iSitifiketi sakhe samaBanga Aphansi eminyakeni emibili ngaphambi kwesikhathi esijwayelekile.

Unyaka wakhe wokugcina esikoleni okuhlalwa kuso wawungo-1938 e-Healtdown, kwathi ngo-1939, eneminyaka engu-21 waba umfundi eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare, eyayixhaswe iziThunywa Zevangeli ZaseMpumalanga Koloni ngo-1916 futhi yayinabafundi abangaba ngu-150 ngaleso sikhathi. Wenza iziqu ze-BA, efunda isiNgisi, uMthetho Wezesayensi Yemvelo Nenhlalo Yabantu kanye nokuQondiswa Kwezindaba Zendabuko, okwakuzomenza akwazi ukuqashwa uMnyango Wezindaba Zendabuko ePitoli. Kwakuyinto engenzeka ngalezo zikhathi futhi uMandela wazithola esengutolika wesiXhosa nesiNgisi, mhlawumbe esebenza neMantshi. Ungane wakhe oseduze eFort Hare kwakunguKaizer Matanzima owayengumzala kaMandela nowayengummeli oyinhloko owenza okuhlukile. Wathola iziqu zakhe ze-BA eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare efunda ngomthetho wamaRoma futhi waqala inkampani yakhe ngo-1940 kwathi ngo-1944 wazuza umklomelo we-Cape Law Society ngenxa yemiphumela yakhe ezivivinyweni zokuFanelekela Ukuba Ummeli, nakuba wagcina engazange asebenze njengommeli.

Ngasekupheleni kuka-1940, ngemva konyaka efikile, uMandela waba yingxenye yombango wabafundi – wayekhethelwe eMkhandlwini Wabafundi kodwa ngenxa yokuvukela wasenqaba leso sikhundla. Ngenxa yalokho waxoshwa nokwamdumaza kakhulu uJongintaba, owayemi kwelokuthi abuyele eFort Hare ngoNyaka Olandelayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho uJongintaba wayelungiselela uMandela nomfowabo uJustin imishado ehleliwe ngakho bobabili babaleka – bantshontsha izinkomo zikaJongintaba ezimbili, bazidayisela usomabhizinisi wendawo. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathathwa imoto eya eGoli eyayihamba ummeli wendawo futhi bafika eGoli ngomhlaka-16 Epreli 1941.

 

  cousin KD Matanzima 300 220   wife evelyn 300 220  
   UNelson Mandela     Unkosikazi kaMandela wokuqala, u-Evelyn   
  nomzala wakhe,    enamadodana abo amabili  
  u-KD Matanzima   uThembi noMakgatho – ngasekupheleni kwawo-1940  
         

Umuntu ophakathi kwabokuqala uNelson nomfowabo uJustin abaya kuye kwakunguDkt Xuma, owayesanda kukhethwa njengomongameli we-ANC nowayengumngane womndeni. Wabathumela kuMnu. Wellbeloved nowabathumela ukuba bayosebenza e-Crown Mines. UJustin wanikezwa umsebenzi womuntu osaqeqeshwa futhi uMandela wasebenza njengomqaphi wakusihlwa. Wanikezwa isigqoko esiyindilinga, iwisa nempempe. Kwafika enye ithelegramu ivele kuJongintaba ecela induna ukuba ithumela lezi zelamani ekhaya. UMandela wayenesibhamu esidala epotimendeni lakhe elahlolwa unogada lapho nje sebelungela ukuhamba. Ngenxa yalokhu wabekwa icala, wafakwa ejele futhi wahlawuliswa kancane.

UMandela waya kohlala nomzala wakhe, uGarlick Mbekene, futhi watshela izihlobo zakhe ngesifiso sakhe sokuba ummeli. UMbekene wamethula kuWalter Sisulu naye owayezalelwe ezweni labaThembu, futhi wayengumholi we-ANC egatsheni lendawo, engumholi wekhwaya, futhi eyilungu lenhlangano yezinsizwa ezingamaXhosa. USisulu wayethengisa izindlu, kodwa hhayi ngendlela esikuqonda ngayo lokho namuhla. I-Alexandra yamiswa njengelokishi lendabuko ngo-1912 futhi ngenxa yalokho yashiywa ngaphandle kwesakhiwo soMthetho Womhlaba Ka-1913, owawenqabela abaNsundu ukuba bathengise noma bathenge imizi ezindaweni zabelungu. Usomabhizinisi waseJalimane wayebolekisa ngemali futhi inkampani yabameli i-Witkin, Sidelsky & Eidelman yabhalisa amabhondi ayevikela izimali ezibolekiwe. USisulu wayehola ngokuthola amakhasimende. UMandela watshela uSisulu ukuthi ufuna ukufundela ukuba ummeli, ngakho uSisulu wamethula kummeli uLazar Sidelsky, owavuma ukuba afundele ubumeli ngaphansi kwakhe, (namuhla kwaziwa ngokufundela ukuba ummeli ngokwenza inkonzo yomphakathi) ngesikhathi enza izifundo zakhe ebe esebenza.

 

  dr alfred xuma 300 220   walter sisulu 300 220  
  UDkt. Alfred Xuma   UWalter Sisulu  
         

Kwakungavamile ngalezo zinsuku ukuthi inkampani yabameli inikeze umuntu onsundu umsebenzi ophathelene nezomthetho – ezweni lonke kwakunabameli abaneziqu abangu-18 ngo-1946 ngesikhathi lapho kwakungabaNsundu abangu-2% kuphela abahlala eGoli ababengathola ilungelo lokusebenza njengabameli ngokusemthethweni. UMandela wabhalisela ukufunda e-UNISA, nokwakhokhelwa uSisulu futhi waqala ukusebenzela inkampani i-Witkin.

Umuntu wokuqala onsundu owamukelwa njengommeli enkantolo yaseNingizimu Afrika kwakungu-Alfred Mangena (mhla zingu-14 Julayi 1910) walandelwa uPixley ka Isaka Seme (mhla zingu-22 Disemba 1910) noGeorge Dixon Montsio ngo-1911. Ngo-1960 kwakunabameli abansundu abangu-60 eNingizimu Afrika okungenani oyedwa kwabathathu babo babezinze eTranskei ngaleso sikhathi. Izikhungo eziqondisayo ekuLondolozweni Kwendabuko okungenani zazinamathuba afanayo nalawo ayetholakala eGoli lapho imithetho yobandlululo yasemadolobheni yayenza ukusebenza kungaqiniseki. Abansundu Abachumayo, bahlangana eBunga, baba nendawo ethi bona eMtata futhi bavulela isizukulwane esisha sabameli abaNsundu amathuba amahle kakhulu abawenza lo msebenzi. Ezinye izikhungo ezaziqhuba umsebenzi wezomthetho kwabaNsundu zaziseGoli naseThekwini.

Maphakathi no-1942 uMandela wahlala mahhala endaweni ehlala izisebenzi zasemayini futhi wahlala izinyanga ezimbalwa emzini kaWalter Sisulu e-7372 Orlando West. Kulapha lapho ahlangana khona no-Evelyn Mase, futhi bashada ngomhlaka-5 Okthoba 1944, ngemva ‘kokuthandana isikhashana.’ UMandela wayeneminyaka engamashumi amabili nesithupha u-Evelyn enengamashumi amabili nantathu futhi yayingekho imali yelobolo neyedili lomshado. UThembekile wazalwa ngomhlaka-23 Febhuwari 1946. U-Evelyn wayehola amaphawundi angu-18 ngenyanga emsebenzini wakhe wokuba umhlengikazi futhi lezi zithandani zahamba zayohlala e-8115 Orlando West zikhokha irenti engu-17d 6din ngenyanga cishe ngasekuqaleni kuka-1947. UbakwaMandela bathola ingane yesibili, intombazane egama layo uMakiwaze. Wayephila ngokugula kusukela ezalwa futhi akazange alulame, washona ngemva kwezinyanga ezingu-9, ngo-1948. Indodana yesibili, uMakgatho, yazalwa ngo-Agasti 1950, futhi ngo-1954 kwazalwa enye indodakazi uMakaziwe, nowaqanjwa lelo gama kukhunjulwa indodakazi eyashona isencane eminyakeni emihlanu ngaphambilini.

Impilo njengommeli osafunda yayinzima nemali ingekho. Umholo wakhe wokuqala kwakungamaphawundi amabili ngenyanga neyakhula yaba amaphawundi angu-8 ngenyanga ngoDisemba 1946. Wayenesudi eyedwa ayayiphiwe uMnu. Sidelsky eyayidinga ayithunge njalo ukuze ihlale isesimweni. Ngezinye izikhathi wayehamba ngezinyawo amamayela amahlanu eya emsebenzini ukuze onge imali yebhasi khona ezothenga ngayo ukudla. Ngawo-1940, uma ufundela ukuba ummeli, kwakudingeka ufunde iminyaka emihlanu uphase neziVivinyo Zokuba Ummeli futhi yilokho uMandela akwenza ukuze abe ummeli.

 

  sidelsky bregman mandela   percy yutar 300 220  
  Abangane abadala – ayefunda naye   Izitha ezindala -  
  uNat Bregman   enomshushisi waseRivonia  
  ‘noThisha Omkhulu’ wangaphambili uLazar Sidelsky   uPercy Yutar  
         

Omunye owayesebenzela uSidelsky kwakungomunye umfundi uNat Bregman, osenkolweni kaMarx nowayengusomahlala owayesebenza emsakazweni ngezinye izikhathi nokwathi kamuva waba nenkampani yakhe yabameli. UMandela wamchaza njengomngane wakhe wokuqala ongumlungu, wayeya emihlanganweni naye futhi edla naye ngezikhathi zekhefu lasemini. Wayefunda ngokuzimisela okukhulu kusihlwa futhi ngo-1943 wabuyela eNyuvesi YaseFort Hare eyokwethweswa iziqu zakhe ze-Bachelor of Arts.

Ngo-1943 uMandela waphinde wabhalisa eWits ukuze enze izifundo zakhe ze-Bachelor of Laws – i-LLB, ngethemba lokuba ummeli. Wayengafundi ngokugcwele futhi ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguye yedwa umfundi onsundu emkhakheni wezomthetho futhi wayengakaze abe khona umuntu onsundu ongummeli enkantolo ephakeme eJohannesburg. UDuma Nokwe waba ngummeli wokuqala onsundu ukuba ilungu leNhlangano Yabameli ngo-1956. Enyuvesi wahlangana noJoe Slovo, uRuth First, uBram Fischer, uGeorge Bizos, u-J.N. Singh no-Ismail Meer, phakathi kwabaningi. NgoDisemba 1946 uMandela wafaka isicelo sokuboleka imali engamaphawundi angu-250 ku-Bantu Welfare Trust, athi wayeyidingela ukufunda ngokugcwele unyaka wakhe wokugcina enza i-LLB. Wayithola le mali. Ngokusho kwakhe, uMandela wathi wayengumfundi odonsa kanzima – kwamthatha iminyaka eyisithupha efunda i-LLB futhi wehluleka kathathu ukuphumelela unyaka wokugcina. NgoDisemba 1949 wabhalela iSikhulu Somkhakha Wezomthetho, uSolwazi Hahlo emcela ukuba amnikeze ithuba lokugcina ukuze abhale izifundo eyengaziphumelelanga. Emhlanganweni okhethekile owawungomhlaka-14 Disemba 1949 iSikhulu Somkhakha nezinye izisebenzi eziyisithupha zebhodi lalo mkhakha basichitha isicelo sakhe, ngoba wayefeyile izifundo ezintathu onyakeni wakhe wokugcina.

Ngo-1952, uMandela waphinde wabhalisela ukwenza i-LLB eWits, kodwa lokho kwakhanselwa phakathi nonyaka ngenxa yokungayikhokhi imali yenyuvesi. Nakuba manje ayesesebenzela i-Hyman Basner njengommeli, kuyaphawulela ukuthi uMandela wayengenayo imali yokukhokhela izifundo zakhe, kodwa kulokhu kubukeka sengathi inyuvesi yayizimisele ukuzwelana naye.

Lapho uthisha omkhulu, uHumphrey Raikes, etshelwa ummeleli wenyuvesi ngokukhanselwa okuqubekayo, watusa ukuba uMandela anikezwe ithuba lokubonana nomqondisi omkhulu, uGlyn Thomas, okwakukhalwa kuye nowayengase abe necebiso nosizo okukahle. UMandela akazange asamukele leso simemo — ngaleso sikhathi wayegxile kakhulu eMkhankasweni Wokuvukela, futhi ngokushesha wasungula eyakhe inkampani yabameli ebambisene no-Oliver Tambo.

 

  final year LLB Wits 1949 600 328  
  UMandela engumfundi eNyuvesi YaseWits lapho ayengafundi ngokugcwele  
  kusukela ngo-1943 kuya ku-1946 nangokugcwele ngo-1947 kuya ku-1948. USolwazi Hahlo (phakathi)  

 

Ngo-1948, uDaniel Francois Malan waba uNdunankulu futhi waqala ukuphoqelela ubandlululo olwedlulele. Umbhali u-JM Coetzee uluchaza ngale ndlela elandelayo ubandlululo: ‘Ubandlululo kwakuyisimiso esiphoqelela ukuhlukaniswa kwabantu ngobuhlanga noma ngobuzwe, esenziwa sasebenza iqembu elikhethekile, elizichaza lona ukuze liqinise ukubuswa amazwe angaphandle ngokukhethekile ukuze liwabambe liwaqinise amagugu awambiwa phansi.’ Leli qembu lalakhiwa abelungu kuphela (ngaleso sikhathi bebizwa ngabantu baseYurophu). Umbhali Wemidlalo u-Athol Fugard wabhala: ‘Ngoba ngokuqinisekile, akukho ndawo namuhla emhlabeni – futhi ngiyaqiniseka ukuthi lokhu kuyiqiniso ngendlela efanayo nangesikhathi esedlule – okwake kwaba nomphakathi lapho ifilosophi yezepolitiki ebusayo, esekelwa futhi isizwe iqembu elibusayo lenkolo yobuKristu, eye yaholela abesilisa nabesifazane ababukeka bekhaliphile ebuphukuphukwini obungachazeki nobudida ingqondo – okwenza kumangaze nakakhulu ukusabalala kwalesi simo sobuhlanya. Ayikho indawo ekuphileni kwethu kwangasese nokuvuleleke kubantu, engaphazanyiswanga yile nto.’

‘Umama’ wesishaya-mthetho sobandlululo (njengoba sasaziwa kanjalo ePhalamende ngo-1990) kwakunguMthetho Wokubhaliswa Kwabantu Ka-1950, owahlukanisa bonke abantu baseNingizimu Afrika ngobuhlanga. Umthetho Wezindawo Zamaqembu, nawo ongoka-1950 wawuveza izindawo okungahlala kuzo izinhlanga ezithile kanti uMthetho Wamandla Abantu Ka-1951 waphoqa ukuba kube neziNdawo Zabansundu (Bantustans) okwenza kwaba nezigidi zabantu abangebona abelungu ukuba bangabi izakamuzi zezwe abazalelwe kulo, nokuthi babhekwe njengezigebengu uma bengenawo ‘amapasi.’ NgoMashi 1963 uMnu H J Botha wakhuluma ngale ndlela elandelayo ngomthetho wezindawo zabansundu eNdlini Yokuhlangana. ‘Njengoba nje okhokho bethu abangamaDashi bakha izindonga ezivikela amanzi adlulayo eZeeland ukuze bagcine uLwandle Lwasenyakatho lukude nezwe loyise, namuhla sakha izindonga zesiko kuyo yonke iNingizimu Afrika ukuze sizigcine zikude izidlamlilo ezinsundu.’ NgoMashi 1963 uMnu C M Warren we-United Party wacaphuna umzala kaMandela, iNkosi uKaizer Matanzima eNdlini Yokuhlangana ngale ndlela elandelayo: ‘Kimi, intuthuko ehlukile iyilokho uMagna Carta ayikho kubantu baseBrithani. Ngifisa ukuqinisekisa abantu ukuthi abaholi baseTranskei bangabalwa phakathi kwabantu abahlakaniphile emhlabeni.’

 

  boxer   old fort  
  UMandela wayezigcina engumqemane   IFort Endala, lapho uMandela   
  ngokusebenza njengomshayi sibhakela.      aboshwa wagcinwa khona kabili ngowo-1950.  
  Uthi wayesijabulela ‘isici sobuhlakani   Manje iyingxenye yasakhiwo    
  salo mdlalo.’    seNdunduma Yesishayimthetho.   
         

Mhla zingu-18 Febuwari 1953 uNobhala Womnyango Wezobulungisa, uMnu AEM Jansen, wamemezela ukuthi kwakungumthetho wesikhathi eside woMnyango Wezobulungisa ukwethula ubandlululo ezinkantolo zeNyunyana, futhi ngo-1960 iMantshi Ephakeme YaseCape Town yamemezela ukuthi wonke amagumbi asezinkantolo kulelo dolobha anamatafula ahlukile abameli abangebona abelungu. Njengommeli uMandela wayesazobona ukubandlululwa ngobuhlanga nokucwaswa okwengeziwe ngokuthi acelwe ngokuphindaphindiwe ukuba aveze ikhadi lakhe ‘elimHlonza Njengommeli’ noma ezinye iziMantshi zimbuze ngokufaneleka kwakhe ukuba ummeli – into eyayingavamile ukwenzeka kubameli abangabelungu.

Ngo-1951, eseziphothulile izifundo zakhe e-Witkin, uMandela wasebenzela inkampani yabameli i-Terreblanche and Briggish lapho achitha khona isikhathi esingangonyaka. Wabe esejoyina inkampani yabameli i-Helman and Michel lapho achitha khona isikhathi esingangezinyanga ezintathu. Ukuze akwazi ukuhola imali eyanele nokunakekela umndeni wakhe uMandela waqala ukufundela izivivinyo ezizomenza afaneleke njengommeli nowakwazi ukuziqeda. Ngokwemibiko ye-Incorporated Law Society of the Transvaal (yangaphambili), uMandela wafakwa ohlwini lwabameli ngoMashi 1951. I-Law Society yaqala ukuba khona ngo-1892 ibizwa nge-De Ingelijfde Orde van Procureurs en Notarissen. Ngo-1902 yaba i-Incorporated Law Society of the Transvaal, futhi elinye lamalungu ayo kunguMahatma Ghandi, owafakwa ohlwini lwabameli ngo-1903. Ngo-1975 yethiwa elinye igama yaba i-Law Society of the Transvaal futhi namuhla yaziwa nge-Law Society of the Northern Provinces. Ngemva kokuphumelela izivivinyo zakhe, uMandela wasebenza e-HM Basner njengommeli ophelele. I-Hymie Basner yayiwasekela ngentshiseko amalungelo abaNsundu. Ngokusho kukaMandela ‘izinyanga eziningi ngisebenza ngangivame ukuba senkantolo ngimele amakhasimende amaningi ale nkampani aNsundu.......ngemva kwesipiliyoni engasithola lapha ngase ngikulungele ukuzimela.’

Ngokwemibiko ye-Law Society, uMandela wazisa i-Law Society ngomhlaka-5 Septhemba 1952 ukuthi manje usesebenza njengommeli ozimele. Unobhala wakhe kwakunguZubelda Patel owahamba noMandela esuka e-HM Basner. Ngalesi sikhathi u-Oliver Tambo wayesebenzela inkampani yabameli eyayaziwa nge-Kovalsky and Tuch futhi uMandela wayejwayele ukumvakashela lapho ngezikhathi zekhefu lasemini. Ngokwemibiko ye-Law Society, uMandela wabazisa ngomhlaka-4 Disemba 1953 ukuthi wayesesebenzisana no-Oliver Tambo. URuth Mompati wabajoyina ngalowo nyaka njengonobhala wezomthetho. 

 

  OliverTambo300 220   mandela lawyer img 300 220  
  U-Oliver Tambo    UNelson Mandela   
         

Kwakuyinkampani yokuqala yabameli abansundu abasebenzisanayo eNingizimu Afrika futhi yayaziwa nge-Mandela and Tambo Attorneys.

Nakhu okushiwo uMandela encwadini yomlando wakhe ethi Long Walk to Freedom:

‘Kusukela ekuqaleni i-Mandela and Tambo yayinamakhasimende amaningi kakhulu. Sasingebona abameli abaNsundu okuwukuphela kwabo eNingizimu Afrika kodwa sasiwukuphela kwenkampani yabameli abaNsundu. Kubantu abaNsundu, sasiwukuphela kwenkampani abangayisebenzisa. Ukuze sifike emahhovisi ethu ekuseni sasihamba phakathi kwesixuku sabantu emihubheni, ezitebhisini nasegunjini lokulinda elincane emahhovisi ethu.

Ngasheshe ngakuqaphela lokho okushiwo i-Mandela and Tambo kubantu abaNsundu abavamile. Yayiyindawo abangeza kuyo bathole ukulalelwa ngesineke nabangasebenzisana nayo ngokuphumelelayo, indawo ababengasoze babuyiselwa emuva futhi kudlalwe ngabo kuyo, indawo ababengazizwa beqiniseka ngempela ukuthi bazomelwa abadoda anesikhumba esifana nesabo. Yileso isizathu esangenza ngaba ummeli kwasekuqaleni, futhi umsebenzi wami wawungenza ngizizwe ngiqiniseka ukuthi ngenze isinqumo esifanele.’

Izikhathi zokusebenza kule nkampani yalaba ababambisene zazisukela ku-8.00 kuya ku-17.00 bejwayele ukuvala emini futhi behamba bobabili beyodla isitshulu. Lapho bobabili besayodla isidlo sasemini babejwayele ukubuya sekunolunye uyide lwabantu olubalindile. Nsuku zonke uMandela wayeshayela imoto yakhe enemibala emibilli eluhlaza okotshani yohlobo lwe-Oldsmobile (ayeyibiza ngenkunzimalanga yakhe ye-Oldsmobile) esuka e-Orlando eya e-Chancellor House, egqoke isudi enebhantshi elinezinkinombo ezisagolide ezifaswa ngapha nangapha esifubeni ethungwe u-Alfred Khan, owayephinde athunge amasudi kaHarry Oppenheimer. UMandela no-Oppenheimer kungenzeka ukuthi babenomthungi oyedwa, kodwa babenemibono engafani. UHarry Oppenheimer, owayeyilungu le-United Party ePhalamende eDolobheni LaseKimberley, watshela i-Cape Times ngomhlaka-26 Julayi 1956: “Kubalulekile, nokho, ukuba ingxenye enkulu yokuhlukaniswa komphakathi nezakhamuzi ilondolozwe iminyaka eminingi ezayo, ngoba umuntu wase-Afrika ‘usaphila ngesidala kakhulu ngokwezepolitiki, isiko nenkolo yakhe.’ Uqagula ukuphela kokuhlukaniswa kwabantu, kodwa kusazodlula izizukulwane eziningi ngaphambi kokuba lokho kwenzeke, ngenxa yokuthi ama-Afrika kwakusadingeka akhuliswe ngezindlela zaseYurophu.” 

UMandela wayengummeli ohamba phambili ngakho konke, nakuba enkantolo ngezinye izikhathi ayejwayele ukunyakazisa umzimba njengokungathi uyalingisa emdlalweni weshashalazi futhi enokweqisa. Uzakwabo u-Oliver Tambo wayehluke ngokuphelele – ethula, ecabangela futhi ecabanga ngokujulile. Ngamazwi akhe, uMandela wathi wayehluleka ukugcina kahle amaphepha omsebenzi nokunakekela izindaba zezimali, kuyilapho uTambo ayenakisisa futhi ecophelela. Ngokho bobabili njengoba besebenzisana bavumelana ukuthi umsebenzi omningi kaMandela uzoba ukunakekela amacala enkantolo kuthi uTambo anakekele umsebenzi wasehhovisi. Ngenxa yokuthi umsebenzi kaMandela wawulinganiselwe eNkantolo Kamantshi yesifunda saseJohannesburg nokwakubangelwa ukuvinjelwa kwakhe wayengakwazi ukusingatha amacala asezinkantolo ezingaphandle kwalezi zindawo. Ngakho uTambo kwakumelwe enze lowo msebenzi ngenxa yalokho umsebenzi wabo waphazamiseka.

 

  mandela and moroka 300 220   burning of passes  
  Phakathi noMkhankaso Wokuvukela   Umkhankaso Wokuvukela -   
   ngo-1952, enoDkt Moroka.   kushiswa amapasi  
         

Ngo-1950 uHulumeni waphasisa uMthetho Oqeda Ubukhomanisi ngaleyo ndlela uqeda i-Communist Party, ngaleso sikhathi eyayinamalungu angaba ngu-2500. Kwaqokwa owayezobhekelela lokhu kuqedwa ukuze engamele ukuvalwa kwezinhlangano zobuKhomanisi nokwakha uhlu lwabantu abangamaKhomanisi, ababengamaKhomanisi nabasekela ubuKhomanisi. Ngo-1958 owayebhekelele ukuqedwa kwe-Communist Party wakhipha amagama abantu abangaba ngu-600 abangaphansi kwalo Mthetho ayefaka phakathi igama likaWalter Sisulu noNelson Mandela. Ngo-1968, ngesikhathi bedonsa izigwebo zabo eRobben Island, laba bangane abakhulu ngokuphumelelayo bafaka isicelo enkantolo becela ukuba amagama abo akhishwe kulolu hlu.

Umkhankaso Wokuvukela Imithetho Engenabo Ubulungisa waqala ngomhlaka-26 Juni 1952. NgoDisemba 1952 uNgqongqoshe Wezobulungisa wakhipha isaziso esenqabela uMandela ukuba abe khona kunoma imuphi umhlangano okhona esifundeni sikamantshi izinyanga eziyisithupha, futhi waphinde wenqatshelwa ukuhlala kunoma iyiphi indawo yeNyunyana ngaphandle kwasifunda sikaMantshi SaseJohannesburg. Amaphoyisa amisa lo mkhankaso oqhubekayo ngokubopha abaholi bawo abaningi, kuhlanganise uMandela, owabekwa icala ngaphansi koMthetho Oqeda Ubukhomanisi. Babengamashumi amabili ababengabasolwa, futhi wawumkhulu kakhulu umsindo enkantolo kangangokuba kwadingeka ukuba imantshi icele umongameli we-ANC, uDkt Moroka (owayethathe isikhundla sikaDkt Xuma njengoMongameli we-ANC ngo-1949) ukuba axoshe leso sixuku, futhi wenza kanjalo. Bonke abasolwa batholwa benecala lokubhebhezela ubuKhomanisi futhi bathola izigwebo ezilengisiwe. UJaji Rumpff owayengamele leli cala wathi abasolwa babenxenxe ngokuqhubekayo abavukeli ukuba balandele ‘isenzo esinokuthula nokuthi bagweme ukudlame lwanoma iluphi uhlobo.’ Ngomhlaka-20 Juni 1949 uNgqongqoshe Wezobulungisa, u-CR Swart wathi emkhandlwini obusayo: ‘Yebo, izimantshi namjaji ethu aqeqeshelwe ukubona ukuthi ‘yiqhinga’ leli lapho kwenzeka okuthile, futhi ngiye ngaqaphela ukuthi iningi lalaba Bantu Bendabuko lizama ukwenza sengathi limsulwa, futhi alimsulwa ngendlela okubonakala sengathi limsulwa ngayo.’

 

  suppression of communism trial   trial support 300 220  
  Abaholi abangamashumi amabili   Abalandeli  
   balabo ababekwa abacala   Ecaleni   

Ngenxa yaleli cala, i-Transvaal Law Society yafaka isicelo sokuba igama likaMandela likhishwe ohlwini lwabameli. Leli cala lalalelwa eNkantolo Ephakeme futhi uMandela wamelwa usihlalo weNhlangano Yabameli EJohannesburg, uWalter Pollak. Inkantolo yasenqaba lesi sicelo yathola nokuthi, nakuba izenzo zakhe zingabhekwa njengezibucayi, wayezimisele ukusiza abantu bakubo abangebona abelungu. Inkantolo yathi lesi sizathu asanele ukuthi kungakhishwa igama lakhe ohlwini. Ngokuvumelana ne-Incorporated Law Society of theTransvaal v Mandela 1954 (3) SA 102 (T), inkantolo yaphinde yathola ukuthi angakhishwa kuphela ohlwini uma akwenzile kumenza angakufanelekeli ukuba sohlwini lwalo msebenzi ohloniphekile. Impikiswano yaqhubeka futhi, ekucabangeni okuyiphutha kokuthi kungumsebenzi wenkantolo ukujezisa ummeli otholwe enecala. Lesi sicelo sachithwa.

Ngomhlaka-25 kuya ku-26 Mayi 1955, abantu abangaba ngu-3000 bafika eMhlanganweni Wabantu owabanjelwa eKliptown lapho kwaphasiswa khona i-Freedom Charter. Eminye futhi imikhankaso ebalulekie ngaleso sikhathi kwakungumkhankaso weziNdawo Zabasentshonalanga (ukukhishwa ngokhahlo) nomkhankaso owawumelene ne-Bantu education (imfundo yaBantu Abansundu).

NgoLwesithathu ekuseni, ngomhlaka-5 Disemba 1956, kwabonakala ‘isenzo samaphoyisa esimangalisayo eNyunyaneni,’ njengoba amaPhoyisa, ephethe amaphepha agunyazwe ngokusemthethweni asayinwe iMantshi YaseJohannesburg, ngobuningi ayethelekela abaholi bezepolitiki abaningana futhi ababopha ngecala lokuvukela elisezingeni eliphezulu futhi batshelwa ukuba babuyele enkantolo bazolalela icala labo eFort, iJele LaseJohannesburg Elikhulu, ngomhlaka-19 Disemba 1956. UNelson Mandela no-Oliver Tambo babephakathi kwabasolwa – iCala Lokuvukela Umbuso njengoba lalaziwa kanjalo ladonsa iminyaka eminingi futhi laba nomthelela omubi kakhulu emsebenzini wobumeli abambisene kuwo.

 

  passes   proof  
  UNelson Mandela phakathi   Umbuso wethula  
  nomkhankaso owawumelene   izinto ezingu-10 000 ezazizosetshenziswa  
  namapasi abesifazane    ekuphenyeni ngemibuzo ukulungiselela icala  
         

Ukuphenya ngemibuzo okulungiselela icala okwase kuthathe isikhathi eside kwaqala ngomhlaka-19 Desemba 1956. Umbuso wawuthi i-Freedom Charter yakhiwa i-ANC, i-SAIC, i-SACP ne-COD nokuthi inezinyathelo zokugumbuqela umbuso nokumisa umbuso wobukhomanisi; nokuthi abanye babasolwa babenze izinkulumo ezigqugquzela umsebenzi wokwenezela okufanele wenziwe iphalamende ukusekela le njongo, ngokwesibonelo, uguquko olwenziwa ngodlame nokuchithwa kwegazi. Omunye ummeli kwabamele abamangalelwa, uVernon Berrange QC, ukuphikisa kwakhe kwakuthi icala lokuvukela umbuso elibelwe laba abangu-156 liwuzungu lwezepolitiki njengelabantu abacindezelwa umbuso phakathi nenkathi yokuPhenya Ngemibuzo noma icala lomlilo waseReichstag eJalimane. Abameli babamangalelwa baveza ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi abamangalelwa “babeyizisulu zezindaba zepolitiki kulabo ababengabashushisi.” Wathi, “leli akulona icala elijwayelekile, uma ubheka indlela ababoshwe ngayo abamangalelwa.” Amanye amalungu oPhiko Olukhethekile (Special Branch) lwe-CID avuma lapho abameli babamangalelwa bewahloma imibuzo ukuthi i-ANC yayijwayele ukugcizelela ukuthi “umzabalazo wayo awunalo udlame.” Ukuphenya ngemibuzo ukungiselela icala kwaphela ngoSepthemba 1957, futhi amacala ayebekwe abantu abangu-64 ababehlanganisa u-Oliver Tambo, nomongameli we-ANC u-Albert Luthuli ahoxiswa. Icala lalilokhu lihlehliswa unyaka nonyaka futhi ngoMashi 1961 uJustice Rumpff wakhipha isahlulelo, wabathola begenacala bonke abamangalelwa. Lokhu kwakusekelwe ekutheni ‘uHulumeni wehluleka ukufakazela ukuthi wawulawulwa amaKhomanisi nokuthi abashushisi babehlulekile kufakazela ukuthi uMhlangano wawuhloselwe ‘ukusebenzisa udlame’ ukuthola abakudingayo.’

 

  song of protest   luthuli and tambo  
  UMandela ephakathi nendawo ngesikhathi   U-Albert Luthuli no-Oliver Tambo  
  kuculwa ingoma yokukhalaza, eHholo LaseDrill, eGoli – ngo-1956    - Bobabili bakhishwa eCaleni Lokuvukela  
      Umbuso ababebekwe lona ngo-1958   
         

NgoJanuwari 1958 uMandela wafaka isicelo sokudivosa u-Evelyn enkanto, futhi idivosi yaphethwa mhla zingu-19 Mashi 1958. Ngokwemigomo yedivosi eyakhishwa inkantolo, u-Evelyn wasala nomuzi owawuse-8115 Orlando. Waphinde wathola netayitela lomhlaba uMandela ayewuthengile eMtata, yasala ngakuye impahla eningi, futhi wathola isamba semali engamaphawundi angu-50. Waphinde wanikezwa ilungelo lokugcina izingane ezincane ezintathu nemali yesondlo engamaphawundi angu-15 nyanga zonke ukuzikhulisa nokukhokha imali yesikole. NgoJuni 1958 uMandela wakhululwa izinsuku eziyisithupha emthethweni owawumenqabela ukwenza okuthile futhi washada noWinnie eBizana mhla zingu-14 Juni 1958. UWinnie waboshwa okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 1958, ngemva kokujoyina uphiko lwabesifazane be-ANC e-Orlando esitelekeni somphakathi futhi wagciwa amasonto amabili. UZenani wazalwa ngomhlaka-5 Febuwari 1959 futhi uZindzi wazalwa ngomhlaka-23 Disemba 1960. Imithetho yasejele yayingazivumeli izivakashi ezineminyaka engaphansi kwengu-16, okwenza uMandela waba nobuhlungu obukhulu ngesikhathi esejele.

UJohn Vorster waqokwa njeNgqongqoshe Wezobulungisa ngo-1960. NjengoMandela, uVorster wayengummeli owayeke waboshwa phakathi kuka-1942 no-1944 eKoffiefontein ngenxa yezinkolelo zakhe zezepolitiki. UVorster wayekhule waze waba uJenene ophikweni lwezempi lwe-Ossewabrandwag, nakuba ayethi wayengakaze enze into ebangela umonakalo. Wayejwayele ukufunga ethi ‘uzocoboshisa’ amakhomanisi futhi ngokushesha ngemva kokuqokwa kwakhe wethula ‘umthetho wokuboshwa izinsuku ezingu-90,’ lapho umuntu ayengase aboshwe izinsuku ezingu-90 ngaphandle kokuthweswa icala.

Ngomhlaka-21 Mashi 1960 kwenzeka isibhicongo saseSharpeville futhi ngokuvumelana noMthetho Wezinhlangano Ezingemthetho, inhlangano ye-PAC ne-ANC zavalwa. Kwakhishwa umthetho wesimo esibucayi owawuzothatha izinsuku ezingu-156 – ngesinye isikhathi kwaboshwa abantu abangu-21 000 eModder B abanye baboshelwa kwamanye amakamu.

 

  state of emergency   nelson winnie zindzi 300 220  
  Aphreli 1960:   Disemba 1960:  
  Kwakhishwa uMthetho Wesimo     UNelson noWinnie Mandela  
  Esibucayi – iButho eGoli    nendodakazi yabo yesibili uZindzi   
         

Ngo-Okthoba 1960, umbuso kaVerwoerd waba nokhetho lwabelungu kuphela ukuze izwe lenziwe i-republic (izwe labantu). Iningi lakusekela lokho. Usuku lokumemezela izwe njengeZwe Labantu lwaqondaniswa nomgubho wenyunyana weminyaka engamashumi amahlanu nanye, mhla zingu-31 Mayi 1961. NgoMayi 1961 futhi ngemva nje kwezinsuku eziyishumi kuphele iminyaka emihlanu yomthetho wesibili omvibhelayo, uMandela wabonakala engqungqutheleni okuthiwa i-All-In Africa eyayisePietermaritzburg, eyayihanjelwe abantu abangaba ngu-1 400.

Bacela ukuba kube ‘nomthetho-sisekelo wentando yeningi ongacwasi ngobuhlanga’ eNingizimu Afrika futhi baphoqa ukuthi kube nomhlangano omkhulu kazwelonke wabameleli abadala abangabesilisa nabesifazane abalinganayo, bazo zonke izinhlanga namasiko. Lo mhlangano wakha isisekelo sohulumeni wentando yeningi ngokuphelele, uMandela etshela izihambeli. Ngokushesha uMandela wazibonakalisa engumuntu okwaziyo ukumela izindaba zomphakathi i-ANC eyake yamazi. Lapho kutheleka amaphoyisa, uMandela nabanye abaholi bacasha kuleso sakhiwo.

 

  all in conference   fake passports 300 220  
  Ekhuluma eNgqungqutheleni Ye-All- in   Iphasiphothi-mbumbulu kaMandela  
  ePietermaritzburg - ngoMayi 1961   ezibiza ngoDavid Motsamayi  
         

Amaphoyisa ezokulondeka, ayethe “azoqela bonke abaholi abangebona abelungu lapho bevela,” aqala umkhankaso wokuthungatha uMandela nayesebenzisana nabo. Waqhubeka inyanga yonke, kodwa kwakuqabukela kudlule usuku igama likaMandela lingahambi phambili kwabezindaba. Kwakushayelwa abahleli bamaphephandaba izingcingo, futhi uMandela wayelokhu aziwa nakakhulu eNingizimu Afrika, futhi wayeba nemihlangano eyimfihlo nezintatheli. Ezifihlile nalapho engazifihlile, uMandela wayebonakala kakhulu – futhi edlula phambi kwawo amaphoyisa. Nokho izwi lokuthi abangaphumi emakhaya aliphumelelanga ekuphazamiseni ngokugcwele izingqondo zabantu abaningi ababengenandaba nezepolitiki.

Ngomhlaka-8 Januwari 1961 uMandela wazisa i-Law Society ukuthi manje usesebenza njengommeli osizayo. Ngomhlaka-7 Juni 1961 i-Law Society yaziswa uMandela ukuthi wayengasasebenzi njengommeli osizayo kodwa ukuthi wayesezokwenza ‘imisebenzi ethile’ eNkantolo Kamantshi. Ngomhlaka-5 Julayi 1961 i-Law Society yaziswa inkampani yabameli eseGermiston i-H Davidoff and Herman ukuthi uMnu. Mandela useyekile ukusebenza njemmeli. Lokho kwaba isaziso sokugcina i-Law Society eyasithola sivela kuMandela njengommeli – manje owayesezokwenza umsebenzi ohluke ngokuphelele.

Esigamwini sokugcina sonyaka ngo-1961 uMandela, uSisulu nabanye abaholi be-ANC namalungu enhlangano yamakhomanisi bakha “Umkhonto Wesizwe” ukwenza umsebenzi wezempi ohloliwe. Ngasekupheleni kuka-1961 ezingxenyeni eziningi zezwe, kwamiswa amakamu kwaqhunyiswa namabhomu ezindaweni ezazihlonziwe. UMandela wayebonakala manje anyamalale manje ezindaweni eziningi eNingizimu Afrika futhi abezindaba babembiza “nge-Pimpernel (uhlobo oluthile lwembali) Emnyama”. Wahlala isikhathi esithile endaweni encane eRivonia, enza sengathi usebenza egadini noma ungumshayeli. NgoJanuwari 1962 kwakufanele aphinde ahlangane nalowo ayesebenza naye, u-Oliver Tambo, eTopiya, lapho uTambo ayethunyelwe khona ukuba amise i-ANC yangaphandle.

 

  algeria 300 220   rivonia sleeping quarters bed 300 220  
  UMandela ese-Algeria ngo-1962 -   Izindawo ayelala kuzo eRivonia  
  evakashele izikhulu zombutho wezempi   ngesikhathi engumbaleki  
         

UMandela wakhishwa ngesinyenyela eNingizimu Afrika ehamba ngogwaqo iLobatsi oseBotswana, wayesethatha indiza eya e-Addis Ababa. Ngokwedayari yakhe uMandela wayebhekwa njengesivakashi sikahulumeni futhi abaholi abanjengoJulius Nyerere, uHabib Bourguiba, uSekou Toure, uLeophold Senghor, uBen Balla waseNigeria noWilliam Tubman waseLiberia ‘bamphatha ngendlela esezingeni eliphezulu.’ ELondon wahlangana noHugh Gaitskell we-Labour Party, noJo Grimmond we-Labour Party. UHaile Selassie waseTopiya wanikeza uMandela iphasiphothi-mbumbulu enegama likaDavid Motsamayi, owayeyikhasimende enkampanini yabameli i-Mandela and Tambo. UMandela wasebenzisa leli gama-mbumbulu lapho ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika.

Ngomhlaka-5 Agasti 19 62 uMandela waboshelwa ngaphandle kwaseHowick, eKZN ezenza umuntu oshayelela omunye – wayevela emhlanganweni ayewubambe noLuthuli, ezombikela ngohambo lwakhe lokuvakashela amazwe omhlaba.

NgoMayi 2016 i-Sunday Times yaveza ukuthi uDavid Rickard, owayeyiSekela Lenxusa Le-US eThekwini nowayesebenzela i-CIA, wavuma ukuthi nguye owakhipha ulwazi olwaholela ekubanjweni kukaMandela.

 

  cecil williams   mandela traditional dress 300 220  
  UCecil Williams waboshwa   Wayegqoke kanje  
  kanye noMandela mhla zingu-5 Agasti 1962   ecaleni lakhe ngo-Okthoba 1962  
         

Icala likaMandela lokubhebhezela isiteleka nokuphuma ezweni engenayo iphasiphothi laliseNkantolo Yesefunda SaseJohannesburg futhi watholwa enecala. Wagwetshwa iminyaka emihlanu ebhadle ejele, wabe esethunyelwa eRobben Island, lapho avalelwa yedwa. NgoJuni 1963, kwaba nezenzo zokucekela phansi ezingaphezu kuka-200 ezenziwa eNingizimu Afrika. Ngomhlaka-11 Julayi 1963 amaphoyisa athatha impahla eseRivonia, eyayinamaphepha amaningi abandakanya uMandela nabakhi bozungu. Wasuswa ejele walethwa eRivonia futhi, ngasekupheleni kwecala watholwa enecala kuwo wonke amacala amane ayebekwe wona futhi wagwetshwa udilika ijele.

Ihhovisi e-Chancellor House lacekelwa phansi umlilo ngo-1960 futhi lokhu kanye nemisebenze yezepolitiki eyayikhula ngamandla kwenza kwangaba lula ngabo ukuqhubeka nokwenza umsebenzi wobumeli futhi yavalwa. Ngo-2011 lapho lesi sakhiwo sesizodilizwa, sathola imali yokusilungisa engu-7 million wamarandi ivela ku-Johannesburg Development Agency.

Amahhovisi amathathu enkampani yabameli azoba umtapo wolwazi onezincwadi zamacala ezomthetho asingathwa yile nkampani ezifakwe kuyikhompuyutha.

Imnyuziyamu izoba sesitezi esiphansi futhi lokhu kuzohlanganisa izincwadi zamacala asenkantolo, izithombe ezingazange zinyatheliswe esikhathini esidlule, imithetho evimbelayo – konke okuhlobene nomsebenzi we-Mandela and Tambo Attorneys.

U-Advocate George Bizos, umngane nommeli omdala kaMandela wayeyisimenywa esikhethekile lapho kwethulwa lezi zakhiwo ezivuselelwe futhi wathi: Ngiyajabula ngesinyathelo esithathwe iDolobha sokuvuselela lesi sakhiwo; siyisakhiwo esiphilayo, indawo ephilayo kamhlonishwa uNelson Mandela, u-Oliver Tambo, uDuma Nokwe, uMendi Msimang, uGodfrey Pitje nabanye.  

 

  chancellor house restored 320   office mandela tambo 320  
  I-Chancellor House    Indawo yokwamukela izivakashi namahhovisi  
  ngemva kokuvuselelwa   kaNelson Mandela no-Oliver Tambo  
         

Kwakungesikhathi elindele isigwebo ecaleni laseRivonia lapho abhala futhi waphasa izivivinyo zakhe zokuqala ze-LLB njengomfundi ofunda engaphandle owabhalisa ngeNyuvesi YaseLondon. Ngo-1967 lapho eseRobben Island wayesenza unyaka wakhe wokugcina lapho ephazamiseka futhi. Umsebenzi wakhe waba nzima kakhulu lapho uhulumeni ngo-1970 uvala izincwadi eziqhamuka phesheya ayezithola ngenxusa laseBrithani.

Ngo-1974, wacabanga ngokuqedela i-LLB yakhe eWits, wenza inyuvesi ukuba imphendule ngokuqapha nangokomthetho kunokuzwelana naye. Ngaleso sikhathi, uMnyango Wezamajele wavala ukuxhumana kwakhe neWits futhi wamenqabela ukuqhubeka nezifundo zakhe ze-LLB, kungaba ngeLondon, iWits noma i-Unisa.

Ngenxa yalokho, uMandela waphoqeleka ukuba athathe izifundo zomuntu oqalayo futhi wabhalisela ukwenza i-BCom (kwezoMthetho) e-Unisa. Ekugcineni, ngo-1981, umphathi emkhakheni wezomthetho e-Unisa, uSolwazi Willem Joubert, wakhuluma nohulumeni ngokungabi nangqondo kokuqhubeka nokwenqabela uMandela ukuba enze i-LLB, futhi wakwazi ukubhalisela i-LLB e-Unisa, owagcina eyithole ngo-1989, sekuphele iminyaka engu-46 eyibhalisele okokuqala eWits.

Abameli abaningi bawabheka amacala kaNelson Mandela angokomthetho nahlobene nalokho ngesikhathi eboshiwe. Inkampani yabameli eseCape Town i-Bernadt, Vukic, Potash & Getz (eyayaziwa nge-Frank, Bernadt & Joffe) yahlanganisa umsebenzi waphakathi kuka-1966 no-1990. Ngo-2004 i-Himan Bernadt yethula amafayela angokomthetho amayelana noMandela ku-Centre of Memory. Ngokuphindaphindiwe, uMandela wayethatha indaba ayidlulisele enkantolo lapho amagunya ephula noma ehluleka ukulandela imithetho eshaywe yiwo, futhi la mafayela enkampani abonisa ukuzimisela kukaMandela ukubekela amagunya inselele esebenzisa zonke izindlela ezikhona.

 

  daughters   mandela mothers pain  
  Amadodakazi kaNelson Mandela   Umama kaNelson Mandela -  
  noWinnie Madikizela:    uNoqaphi Nosekeni, ongowesithathu  
  uZindzi noZenani   emakhosikazini amane kaHenry Gadla   
         

Ngomhlaka-5 Disemba 2013, uNelson Mandela wadlula emhlabaeni eneminyaka engu-95. Ngosuku olulandelayo i-The Law Society of South Africa, egameni lamalungu ayo ayisithupha yakhipha isitatimende esilandelayo.

‘Emhlabeni wayengungqa-phambili, emndenini wakhe nasesizweni sethu, engubaba, kodwa emsebenzini wobumeli wayeyisisekelo sezimiso wonke ummeli azifisa ukuphila ngazo: ukubuyisana, ubulungisa ekuhlalisaneni nokuhlonipha izindlela zokuphila ezivikelwa uMthetho Wamalungelo.

Njengabameli sizizwa sihloniphekile ngokuthi uMnu. Mandela wakhetha ukusebenza ezinhlwini zethu. Yena, ekanye no-Oliver Tambo, bavula inkampani yabameli abansundu yokuqala ezweni, okwalethela abantu ababengenathemba ithemba nesithunzi, okwacabela isizukulwane samanje sabameli indlela eya phambili.’

Ifa likaMandela labhalwa okokuqala ngo-2004 lachitshiyelwa ngo-2008.

Unkosikazi kaMandela wesibili, uWinnie Madikizela-Mandela, akafakwanga efeni. Yena noMandela badivosa ngo-1996.

Ngo-2014 abameli baWinnie Mandela bafaka amaphepha enkantolo athi umuzi wawuthola ngesikhathi besashadile noMandela futhi ungowakhe ngokuvumelana nemigomo yamasiko abaThembu. Ngo-Aphreli 2016 iNkantol Ephakeme YaseMthatha yasichitha lesi sicelo wakhokha nezindleko. Ngo-Agasti 2016 wadlulisela icala ku-SCA ukuze kushintshwe lesi sinqumo.

NgoMayi 2016 kwaphinde kwaphothulwa konke ukwabiwa kwefa likaNelson Mandela. Ababengamele zonke izinto uGeorge Bizos noDikgang Moseneke balichaza ngendlela elandelayo ifa likaMandela:

UMachel uzothola izindawo ezine laba ababeshadile ababengabanikazi bazo ngokuhlanganyela eMozambique. Uzophinde athole izimoto zabo, ubucwebe abuthola lapho beshada nayo yonke imali ekuma-akhawunti asebhange noma etshalwe ezikhungweni zabo zezimali.

UMachel noMandela babeshade ngelungiselelo elihlanganisa amafa. Wayengunkosikazi wakhe wesithathu. Izingane uMachel azithola ngesikhathi esengunkosikazi wowayengumongameli waseMozambique uSamora Machel, uJosina noMalengane Machel, ngamunye wathola u-R3m.

Washiyela ngayinye yezingane eziyisithupha uMachel azithola emshadweni owandulele u-R100 000. UMachel wanikezwa izinsuku ezingu-90 ukunquma ukuthi uzolisebenzisa yini ilungelo lakhe lokuthatha isigamu sefa likaMandela, uMoseneke wathi walisebenzisa.

Imizi kaMandela eseHoughton, eJohannesburg, eCape Town, eQunu naseMthatha eMpumalanga Koloni yashiywa ku-trust yomndeni.

Amalungu omndeni ayezosebenzisa le mizi emihlanu ukuze ahlale kuyo kuye ngesidingo.

 

  house at victor verster   retirement home at qunu  
  Umuzi osemagcekeni eJele   Indlu yangaphambili uMandela  
  eVictor Verster   athathela kuyo umhlala-phansi eQunu  
         

Imali yahlukaniswa ngendlela elandelyo:

Izingane uMandela azithola kumkakhe wokuqala u-Evelyn, uMakgatho Mandela noMakaziwe Mandela, zathola u-R3.5m no-R3.3m ngokulandelana.

Izingane zikaMakgatho, uMandla, uNdaba, uMbuso no-Andile Mandela, ngayinye yathola u-R1.1.

Izingane zikaMakaziwe - uDumani noTukwini Mandela, u-Adjao Amuah noKweku Amuah – ngayinye yathola u-R1.1m.

Izingane zikaThembekile Mandela, uNdileka noNandi Mandela, ngayinye yathola u-R3.3m efeni. UThembekile indodana endala uMandela ayithola ku-Evelyn.

Izingane zikaMadikizela-Mandela, uZenani Mandela-Dlamini noZindzi Mandela, ngayinye yathola u-R3m.

Izingane zikaZenani - uZinhle, uZaziwe and uZamaswazi – ngayinye yathola u-R100 000.

UBambatha, uZondwa, uZwelabo noZoleka, okuyizingane zikaZindzi, ngayinye yathola u-R100 000.

Umzukulu kaMandela, uZozuko Mandela, okuyingane kaZamaswazi, wathola u-R100 000 efeni.

Abayisishiyagalolunye, ababesebenza eduze noMandela, kuhlanganise nomsizi wakhe uLa Grange, ngamunye wathola u-R50 000 efeni.

Izikhungo zezemfundo – iNyuvesi YaseWitwatersrand neNyuvesi YaseFort Hare – ngasinye sathola u-R100 000.

I-Qunu Secondary School eMpumalanga Koloni ne-Orlando West High School eSoweto, eGauteng, ngasinye salezi zikole sathola u-R100 000. Lezi zikhungo zazizosebenzisa le mali njengemifundaze.

I-ANC izothola imali eyisilinganiso esiphansi sika-10% nesilinganiso esiphezulu sika-30% ezimalini ze-NRM Family Trust.

Ummeli nomngane kaMandela uGeorge Bizos wathi le fa libonisa indlela uMandela ayengenabugovu ngayo.

"Izifiso zakhe kule fa ziwukufingqwa kwezifiso zakhe ekuphileni. Uze wabela nezikhungo zemfundo. Wayengenabo nhlobo ubugovu,” kusho uBizos owayehlengezela izinyembezi ngemva kokufunda ifa.

 

  mandela pic   mandela s favourite 300 220  
  Kwaphela isikhathi eside umhlaba   UMadiba enomunye  
  ungayazi indlela uMandela ayebukeka ngayo.   ‘wabantu’ abathandayo.  
   Le indlela umdwebi owayecabanga ngayo.   Uthini uMadiba lapha?  
      Isinqumo esakho!  
         

SIYABONGA NGOKUFUNDA KWAKHO