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UKUTHENGA INDLU

Ukuthenga indlu cishe kuwukutshala imali okukhulu kakhulu nokubaluleke kakhulu oyoke ukwenze ekuphileni kwakho.

Lapho kwenzeka uthola indlu ofisa ukuyithenga, nangaphambi kokuba usayine noma iliphi itayitela (deed of sale) (ngezinye izikhathi okubhekiselwa kulo ngokuthi ‘yi-Offer to Purchase’), landela lezi ziqondiso ezilula:

  • Hlola indlu ngokucophelela. Buza ngophahla lwayo, amagatha (gutters), izintambo zikagesi, isisekelo nokunye. Uma kungenzeka ube nokungabaza okuthile, thintana nochwepheshe kwezezindlu ukuze akuhlolele leyo ndlu. Uma kungenzeka kube nezimfa ezithile, bonisa kwi-deed of sale ukuthi kumele ilungiswe ngumthengisi ngezindleko zakhe.
  • Ngaphambi kokuba usayine i-deed of sale, nikeza ummeli wakho idokhumenti ukuze ayihlole. Buza nganoma yini engacacile.
  • Buza nganoma yiziphi ezinye izindleko ezenezelwe – ummeli wakho uzokunikeza izimpendulo. Noma yini ehlinzekwayo nethenjiswayo kumele ibe yingxenye yesivumelwano esilotshiwe. Izithembiso ezishiwo ngomlomo azinamandla. Idokhumenti esayinwe nguwe yase yamukelwa ngumthengi ingase ibe yisivumelwano esibophayo.
  • Qiniseka ukuthi usesimweni esihle ngokwezimali. Uma kungenzeka udinge ibhondi, hlinzeka futhi nangezimali zezindleko noma zokunqunywa kwemali indlu engase iyibize nezokurejista – ummeli wakho angakutshela ngalokhu.
  • Uma ungaqiniseki ukuthi uzokwazi yini ukuthola imali-mboleko ukuze ulungiselele imali yokuthenga kanye / noma nezinye izindleko, makwazeke ukuthi ukuthenga kwakho kuxhomeke ekutholeni imali-mboleko.
  • Qiniseka ukuthi i-deed of sale ikuhlinzeka ngesitifiketi esibonisa ukuthi umuhlwa awukho kuleyo ndlu (beetle-free certificate) ngezindleko zomthengisi ezifundaweni zaseKapa naKwaZulu-Natali, nangesitifiketi esibonisa ukuthi ugesi ufakwe ngendlela evumelana nomthetho kuzo zonke izifundazwe.
  • Ingabe umthengi ufuna idiphozi yemali athengisa ngayo? Uma kunjalo, lungiselela ukuba inkokhelo igcinwe esikhwameni sokukhokha kunoma yimuphi ummeli ngesikhathi isalindele ukudluliselwa, futhi igcinwe endaweni ephephile kwi-akhawunti yokonga ekhethekile kuze kube yilapho indlu isisegameni lakho. Ngokuvumelana kwabo bobabili abathengiselanayo, ummeli angase atshale le mali ngokuvumelana nemibandela ezovumela ukuba inzalo ezuziwe ifakwe kwi-akhawunti yakho.
  • Phawula usuku lokuqala ukungena endlini kwi-deed of sale. Uma kungenzeka uthuthe ngaphambi kokuba indlu ibe segameni lakho, kuzolindeleka ukuba ukhokhe intela. Qiniseka ukuthi ubani onomthwalo wokukhokha izintela, izinhlawulo kanye nezimali zomshwalense phakathi nale nkathi. Uma kungenzeka ukuthengiswa kwendlu kuphazamiseke ngemuva kokuba usungenile kuyo, kuzodingeka ukuba uphume futhi kuyo ungene ezindlekweni zomqaphi nokulahlekelwa.
  • Uma umthengisi efuna ukususa noma yiziphi izinto ezinjengezitshalo, amakhabethe nokunye, lokhu kufanele kubekwe ngokucacile encwadini yesivumelwano (contract). Noma yiziphi izinto ezizihambela zodwa (njengamakhethini, izinto zokusetshenziswa edamini lokubhukuda nokunye) nazo kumelwe zicaciswe.

UKUTHENGISA INDLU

Uma kungenzeka uhlele ukuthengisa indlu yakho, ungalahlekelwa yimali oyithole ngalokhu kutshalwa kwezimali ngokungazi ngezindaba ezingokomthetho ezibandakanyekile.

Landela lezi ziqondiso:

  • Gcina indlu yakho nendawo eyizungezile kucocekile ukuze ikhange kulabo abangase babe ngabathengi.
  • Xhumana nommeli wakho maqondana namalungelo nezibopho zakho. Njengomthengi, unelungelo lokukhetha ummeli wakho ukuba asingathe ukudluliswa kwendlu. Ungamvumeli umthengisi wezindlu (estate agent) ukuba akuqinele.
  • Yiya kumthengisi wezindlu oyedwa noma abengeziwe ozikhethele bona ukuze ufake indlu yakho ohlwini lwezithengiswayo. Amalungelo okuthengisa indlu yakho ungawanikezi umthengisi wezindlu oyedwa ngaphandle kokufakela lolu daba izibuko ngokucophelela. Ummeli wakho angakwazi ukukweluleka ngalolu daba.
  • Lapho usuthole umthengi, ungasayini lutho noma i-deed of sale ngaphambi kokuba ummeli wakho eseyihlolile idokhumenti. Zonke izihlinzeko nezithembiso kumele zibe yingxenye yesivumelwano esibhalwe phansi. Izithembiso ezishiwo ngomlomo azinasisekelo.
  • Ngaphambi kokuba usayine, thola ukuthi yikhomishini engakanani okumele ikhokhelwe umthengisi wezindlu nokuthi i-VAT ifakiwe yini.

UKUTHENGA NOMA UKUTHENGISA INDLU    LOKHO OKUFANELE UKWAZI

  • Nika umthengisi wezindlu igama lommeli wakho – ummeli wakho uzobhekana nezindaba ezingokomthetho futhi aqinisekise ukuthi indlu idluliselwa kumthengi. Uzohlela futhi ukukhokhwa kwezimele, futhi aqinisekise ukuthi uyayithola imali yakho. Okulandelayo uhlu lwezimfuneko ezibalulekile okufanele kuhlangatshezwane nazo kwi-deed of sale. Nokho, lolu luhlu aluphelele njengoba ukukhokhwa kwezimali ngakunye kunezidingo zakho. Uma ufisa ukwenza kanjalo, ummeli wakho angakwenzela i-deed of sale.
  • Amagama, izinombolo zikamazisi nesimo somshado (ngokwesibonelo ukuthi ushade kwi-community of property noma cha) noma isimo (lapho inkampani ibandakanyekile) yalabo abathintekayo, kanye namakheli omthengisi nomthengi.
  • Incazelo nosayizi wendlu nesitende njengoba kuchazwe ngokuningiliziwe kwi-deed of sale.
  • Imali yokuthengisa kanye nendlela yokukhokha.
  • Ilungiselelo lokuthi umthengi ukhokha zonke zindleko zokudluliselwa kwendlu egameni lomthengi.
  • Igama lommeli wakho osingatha ukudluliselwa kwendlu egameni lomthengi.
  • Usuku lokuba ngumnikazi nokungena endlini.
  • Ilungiselelo lokuthi umthengi nguyena ozokhokha izintela nezimali zikamasipala kusukela osukwini angena ngalo endlini.
  • Ilungiselelo lokuthi indlu ithengiswe ‘njengoba injalo’ (ngamanye amazwi ngaphandle kwanoma yisiphi isiqinisekiso ngasohlangothini lwakho maqondana namaphutha afihlekile).
  • Ikhomishini okumelwe ikhokhelwe umthengisi wezindlu.
  • Uma usuku lokungena endlini lungaphambi kosuku lokudluliselwa kwendlu egameni lomthengi, qinisekisa ukuthi umthengi ukhokha inzalo emalini yokuthengisa noma irenti kuze kube usuku lokudluliselwa kwendlu kumthengi. Inani nendlela yokukhokha kumele kucaciswe.
  • Iqiniso lokuthi akukho lushintsho olusebenzayo kwi-deed of sale ngale kokuba lubhalwe phansi futhi lwasayinwa yibo bobabili abathengiselanayo.
  • Ukuthi isitifiketi sokungabikho komuhlwa (beetle-free certificate) kufanele sitholakale (ezifundazweni zaseKapa naKwaZulu-Natali) futhi uma kunjalo ngubani okufanele akhokhele ukuhlolwa kwendlu nomsebenzi odingekayo.

UKUTHENGA NOMA UKUTHENGISA INDLU    LOKHO OKUFANELE UKWAZI

  • Noma yimiphi imibandela ekhethekile, ngokwesibonelo:

-      Uhlu lwanoma yiziphi izinto ezikhishiwe endalini.

-      Ukuthi ukuthengiswa kwendlu kuxhomeke kumthengi othola ibhondi noma ukuthengiselwa komthengi wendlu. Ummeli wakho angakweluleka maqondana nale mibandela.

-      I-deed of sale ekhethekile kufanele yenziwe uma umthengi efisa ukukhokha imali yokuthengisa enkathini ende. Lena yindaba eyinkimbinkimbi ehambisana nezingcuphe ezithile futhi uyanxuswa ngamandla ukuba uvumele ummeli wakho akwenzele i-deed of sale.

OKUMBALWA OKUMELE UKWAZI

‘Ukudlulisela kumthengi (Conveyancing)’ kuchaza inqubo engokomthetho ngokuvumelana nendlela amalungelo empahla engathutheki abhaliswa ngayo kwi-Deeds Office (iHhovisi Lamatayitela). La malungelo ahlanganisa ubunikazi, ukudluliswa kwempahla, ilungelo lokusebenzisa impahla yomunye, amalungelo ezinto ezimbiwayo nokunye. Wonke la malungelo atholwa ngokomthetho ngumuntu uma nje ukubhalisa sekwenziwe. Ngakho inqubo yokubhalisa ‘iqinisa’ ngokusemthethweni ilungelo lomuntu lobunikazi bempahla engathutheki.

Ukwenziwa kokudluliswa kwempahla kubandakanya izinyathelo eziwuchungechunge eziqala nge-deeds of sale neziqhubeka kuze kube sekubhaliselweni kobunikazi, nokwenziwa kwezinkokhelo nokulungiswa kwezimali.

‘Impahla engathutheki’ ingaba yinoma umuphi umhlaba, kungakhathalekile ukuthi awuthuthukisiwe noma uthuthukisiwe, ngokwesibonelo ngokwakhiwa kwendlu, ipulazi noma iyunithi yetayitela lengxenye yendawo ethile.

‘Odlulisela kumthengi (Conveyancer)’:Umdluliseli wendlu kumthengi wamukelwa yiNkantolo Ephakeme njengomuntu onjalo ngemuva kokuba esephothule ukuhlolwa kokufaneleka okukhethekile. Ngumuntu oye wamukelwa yiNkantolo Ephakeme njengommeli, ongase asebenze njengodlulisela kumthengi. Ngakho bonke abadlulisela impahla kubathengi bangabameli futhi, kodwa akubona bonke abameli abangabadlulisela impahla ethengiwe kubathengi.

Ngubani omisa abadlulisela impahla ethengiwe kubathengi? Ezifundazweni eziningi eNingizimu Afrika, umkhuba ovamile owokuba umthengi akhethe umdluliseli wempahla nakuba lokhu, njengakwezinye izimo zesivumelwano sokuthengiselana, kungahlukahluka ngenxa yokuthengiselana phakathi kwabathengiselanayo.

Umthengisi angase futhi akhethe umdluliseli wempahla ukuze ameluleke, kodwa lezi zindleko ziyoba ngaphezu kwalezo ezinikezwe ngumdluliseli wempahla womthengisi, okunguyena ozobe enza umsebenzi wokudlulisela impahla kothengile.

Kungani umdluliseli wempahla ethengiwe edingekile? Okuningi kusengozini lapho kudluliswa impahla engathutheki. Ngokuvamile yimpahla eyodwa enkulu kunazo zonke umuntu aba ngumnikazi wayo futhi ukudluliswa kwempahla ethengiwe noma ukuthengiswa kwempahla engathutheki kuyisivumelwano esibaluleke kakhulu esenziwa phakathi kwabantu.

Ngakho umthetho uthi makube ngabadluliseli bempahla abaqeqeshiwe kuphela abangase badlulisele kumthengi impahla engathutheki kanye nokwenza izivumelwano ezihlobene nalokho. Lokhu akwenzelwa nje kuphela ukuvikela ngokufanele amalungelo nezithakazelo zomphakathi, kodwa nokuvikela ubuqotho bohlelo lokubhaliswa kwempahla lwaseNingizimu Afrika, olubhekwa endaweni yonke njengolungcono kuwo wonke umhlaba.

Uma sekuhlolwe yonke into, umdluliseli wempahla kumthengi eselandele zonke izinqubo futhi impahla isibhaliswe egameni lomthengi, umthengi angaqinisekiswa ukuthi unetayitela lempahla elisemthethweni.

Yini ongayenza uma umdluliseli wempahla ehluleka ukwenza lo msebenzi?

Abadluliseli bempahla kumthengi bangajeziswa ngabaphethe umthetho (law society) basesifundazweni abasebenza ngaphansi kwaso. Abaphathi bomthetho (law society) bazothatha isinyathelo ukuze basize umphakathi.

Uma umuntu ekholelwa ukuthi umdluliseli wempahla kumthengi akazange awenze ngendlela efanele umsebenzi wakhe, angase afake isikhalazo kubaphathi bomthetho abafanelekayo abazobe sebeluhlola udaba, futhi ezimweni ezifanelekile, bazomjezisa umdluliseli wempahla.

Uma umdluliseli wempahla ebe budedengu futhi umthengisi noma umthengi elahlekelwa ngenxa yobudedengu, umdluliseli wempahla angase ahlawule inani lemali ebalahlekele.