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ABAMELI ENINGIZIMU AFRIKA       English       Afrikaans       isiXhosa        Setswana

Lena yi-home pageequkethe imininingwane evamile eyengeziwe mayelana Nabameli kanye Nomthetho waseNingizimu Afrika.Lapha ungathola ummeli noma inhlangano yabameli yaseNingizimu Afrika, uma ubheka ngendawo.Ngemininingwane emayelana nezihloko ezithile zomthetho vele ukhethe bese uchofoza isihloko sakho osikhethayo esingenhla.Kule webhusayithi ungacwaninga ngomthetho ezinhlotsheni esizabalele zezihloko zezomthetho.Bheka online imiThetho Yokusebenza Komthetho engaphezu kwama-250.Le webhusayithi iwumthombo ohlanganisiwe wezomthetho onemibuzo evame ukubuzwa engaphezu kwama-365 emayelana nomthetho waseNingizimu Afrika.

Noma ngabe udinga ukuthintana nommeli ngodaba oluphuthumayo noma kungenzeka udinge ukwenzenjalo esikhathini esizayo, manje yisikhathi esihle kakhulu sokwazi kabanzi mayelana nabameli nomthetho waseNingizimu Afrika.–Lokhu kungakusiza ukuthatha izinqumo eziphusileuma udinga ukusizwa ummeli!

  1. Babiza malini abameli futhi ngingayinciphisa kanjani imali kanye nezindleko zami?
  2. Ngingenzenjani uma ngingeke ngakwazi ukukhokhela imisebenzi yommeli?
  3. Lusebenza kanjani uhlaka oluthi Uma Impumelelo ingekho – ayikho inkokhelo uma kubhekenwe nommeli?
  4. Yimiphi imibandela okumele ibhekwe ngaphambi kokuhambisa enkantolo inkinga yezomthetho?
  5. Yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukene zezinhlawulo umuntu angazifakela isicelo semali?
  6. Ummeli wami uliwinile icala lami, kubandakanya nezindleko. Usenginikeze iphepha lezindleko. Lokhu kusebenza kanjani?
  7. Yimiphi imisebenzi yansukuzonke eyenziwa ummeli?
  8. Umuntu ukulungele kanjani ukuthi asebenze njengoMmeli eNingizimu Afrika?
  9. Yini imisebenzi yommeli ogunyazwe uhulumeni nommeli osebenza ngokuthengiswa nokudayiswa kwempahla?
  10. Zihlukaniswe kanjani izigungu ezisemqoka zomthetho eNingizimu Afrika?
  11. Yini isakhiwo sezinkantolo eNingizimu Afrika?
  12. Yini umsebenzi wenhlangano yabameli?
  13. Ungangivikela kanjani Umthetho omusha Ovimbela Ukusatshiswa uma ngisatshiswa?
  14. Kumele ngenzenjani uma ngisatshiswa noma ngethuselwa ngesikweletu engingasikweleti?
  15. Ngabe imali ese-Akhawuntini Yesikhwama Sabameli iyayikhokha inzalo?

 

1. Babiza malini abameli futhi ngingayinciphisa kanjani imali kanye nezindleko zami?

 

Isingeniso: Uma kulandelwa usikompilo lwamaNgisi, umsebenzi wezomthetho eNingizimu Afrika uhlukeniswe ngokwe-‘bar’ ne-‘side bar’.

Abameli abangama-advocates (babizwa ngama-barristers e-England) benza i-‘bar’ ngokuvamile babizwa nge-‘counsel’.Basebenza ukulungisa amacala asezinkantolo, ukuvela ezinkantolo nezinye izigungu nokunikeza imibono yezomthetho.Abavunyelwe ukwenza izigungu zokusebenzisana futhi bangamela kuphela ilungu lomphakathi uma beyalelwe ummeli walowo muntu.Ngo-December 2016 babeyi-7620 abameli abasebenzayo eNingizimu Afrika, abawela ngaphansi kwesigungu Se-General Council of the Bar of South Africa.

Abameli (babizwa ngama-solicitors e-UK) benza i-‘side bar’ futhi bavame ukwaziwa njengabameli’. Itemu 'amagqwetha' itemu lesiXhosa lommeli.IsiXhosa ulimi lwesiNguni.Ezinye izilimi zesiNguni yisiZulu, SiSwati nesiNdebele.Itemu 'babueledi' itemu leSetswana lommeli.ISetswana ulimi lwabeSuthu.Ezinye izilimi zabeSuthu: ISesotho neSepedi. Abameli ochwepheshe bezomthetho, benza zonke izinhlobo zemisebenzi yezomthetho.Baphatha amacala ezomthetho, babhekane ngqo namakhasimende abofuthi babe ngabalawuli abasemqoka ebudlelwaneni obuncane, obuphakathi nobukhulu.Ngo-December 2016 babeyi-24 912 abameli abasebenzayo eNingizimu Afrika, abangaphansi kwesigungu Senhlangano Yabameli YaseNingizimu Afrika. Le webhusayithi imayelana nabameli

Izindleko Zezomthetho yizindleko zabameli okumele zikhokhwe yikhasimende.Ummeli wakho uyoqala ngokukunikeza inkomba eyendlalekile yezindleko zomsebenzi wakhe.

Izindleko zokukhokhela abameli bokuthengisa bokuthenga impahlazibekwa esilinganisweni esingaguquki esisendimeni esemthethweni. Uma ucabanga ukuthenga indlu, ungabala izindleko zommeli wakho, izindleko zokuguqulwa kobunikazi kanye nemali ekhokhelwa ukuthengwa kwendlu lapha:

Ezindabeni ezibandakanya umbango wasemphakathini, noma ngabe kuseNkantolo kamantshi noma enkantolo ephakeme, izindleko zibekwa phansi esilinganisweni esingaguquki esisendimeni esemthethweni.Izichibiyelo zakamuva ezavezwa emaphepheni mhla zingama-27 September 2017 zaqala ukusebenza mhla zingama-1 November 2017futhi ungazifunda lapha. Uma ikhasimende livuma ekuqaleni futhi laziswe ngokugcwele, ummeli angabiza imali ephezulu.

Ezindabeni ezingenambango (icala elingayi enkantolo), izindleko ziyoba njengoba nivumelene nommeli wakho, futhi ngokuvamile ziyizindleko ezincike enkokhelweni yehora ngehora (noma ingxenye yalokho) oyokwaziswa ngazo ngaphambi kokuthi ummeli aqale ukusebenza.

Uma wenze isivumelwano nommeli wakho esimayelana nendlela ethileyenkokhelo,Ngokomthetho Wenkokhelo Yezimo Eziphuthumayo we-1997, lapho ummeli angeke akubiza imali ngaphandle uma uwina icala, ummeli angakhokhela imali eyengeziwe noma akubize ingxenye ethile yalokho okutholakele ohlangothini oluhlawulisiwe.

Emacaleni asenkantolo, ummeli angafuna imali ihora ngehora, usuku ngosuku noma imali ephelele yokuphatha lonke udaba-bheka isigaba sethu esimayelana Nomthetho Wasenkantoloukuthola imininingwane ethe xaxa. I-Nevetecyinkampani esebenza kuphela ngokusula amarekhodi obelelesi noma ukuthola izitifiketi ze-SAPS zokwesulwa kobelelesi, futhi ungafunda ngokufingqiwe mayelana nemisebenzi yabo lapha.

Ukunciphisa inkokhelo nezindleko zezomthetho

Uma usuxoxisene nommeli wakho mayelana nobunjalo nesimo sezindleko nenkokhelo yezomthetho, usuthathe isinyathelo sokuqala esidingekayo ukulawula izindleko nenkokhelo yezomthetho. Nokho-ke kukhona izinto ezimbalwa ongazenza ngesikhathi sokuqhubeka kwecala ezingakusiza ukulawula zonke izindleko nenkokhelo:

  • Zilungiselele. Ngesikhathi sokuxoxisana kokuqala, letha imininingwane eminingi bese ucobelelana nommeli wakho. Bhala phansi imibuzo ofuna ummeli wakho ayiphendule. Lokhu kuyosiza ukunciphisa isikhathi esiyochithwa ummeli ekuphenyeni udaba lwakho nasekuhlanganiseni imininingwane.
  • Khuluma konke. Tshela ummeli wakho onke amaqiniso. Ungacabangi ukuthi ummeli wakho uyawazi wonke. Ukuze akwazi ukubhekana kahle nodaba lwakho, kuyomsiza ummeli wakho ukwazi konke ngodaba lwakho. Yonke imininingwane yakho kumele igcinwe iyimfihlo.
  • Zama ngayo yonke indlela ukufingqa.
  • Kudingeka uthintane nommeli wakho mayelana nodaba lwakho futhi ulungiselele ukuhlangana kwenu. Uma kukhona okusha okwenzekayo kumele wazise ummeli wakho. Kungaguqula indlela angayithatha ukubhekana nodaba lwakho, kukongele wena nommeli wakho isikhathi nemali.
  • Hlola iphepha lakho lezindleko.Qiniseka ukuthi iphepha lakho lezindleko aliqukethe izindleko ezingaphezu kwalezo ovume ukuzikhokha. Iphepha Lezindleko ingenye yabantu okuxoxiswana nabo abahamba phambili kwezomthetho waseNingizimu Afrika lapho ungafunda kabanzi.

 

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2. Ngingenzenjani uma ngingeke ngakwazi ukukhokhela imisebenzi yommeli?

 

Umshuwalensi wezomthetho 

Abaningi bethu bayobhekana nezinkinga zezomthetho esikhathini sokuphila kwethu.Uma ukhathazekile ngezindleko zezomthetho, umshuwalensi wezomthetho ngenye yezinto okumele uzicabange.I-Legalwise ingenye yezinkampani zemishuwalensi yezomthetho ehamba phambili eNingizimu Afrika futhi ungakwazi ukubona imikhiqizo yabo lapha.

Imininingwane Yezomthetho

Iningi lemininingwane yezomthethoseliyatholakala emakhompyutheningaphandle kwesidingo sokuthintana nommeli – leyo mininingwane yezomthetho ibandakanya: Ukucinga Inkampani, Imibuzo Ngezikweletu, Ukucinga Umqondisi, Ukucinga Incwadi Yesibopho, Ukufunwa Kwamakhasimende Nokuphathwa konesikweletu. I-Legal City ingenye yabahlinzeka ngokusebenzisa ikhompyutha ngemininingwane yezomthetho abahamba phambili eNingizimu Afrika futhi ungafunda ngobunjalo bemikhiqizo yabolapha.  I-Kilgetty Secretarial Services ingenye yezinkampani ezisezingeni eliphezulu zemisebenzi yonobhala eNingizimu Afrika, futhi ungafunda ngobunjalo bemisebenzi yabolapha.

 

Abaxhumanisi bakwa-Liquor Buzniz Consultants bangabanye babaholi ekubhalisweni kwezincwadi zokudayisa utshwala eNingizimu Afrika futhi ungafunda ngokufingqiwe mayelana nemisebenzi yabo lapha.

 

Izivumelwano Zezomthetho

Asikuboni kuwumqondo omuhle ukusebenzisa izivumelwano ‘ezihlala zilungisiwe’ uma ungena emisebenzini esemqoka efana nokuthenga, ukudayisa, ukuqasha noma ukuqashisa ngempahla – uma wenza lokhu kuyodingeka uthintane nommeli.

I-Legal Aid South Africa

Legal Aid SA igunyazwe Umthethosisekelo Weriphabhlikhi yaseNingizimu Afrika (UMthetho we-108 we-1996)ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezomthetho odabeni lwasenkantolo nolwangaphandle kwasenkantolo kubantu abampofu nabahlaseleka kalula ngezindleko zombuso. Laphakunohlu lwamahhovisi e-Legal Aid SA, futhilapha uhlu Lwezinkantolo Zikamantshi. 

Ngenxa yokuthi i-Legal Aid SA ithola imali yentela ukuyisebenzisa kubantu abampofu, kumele iqinisekise ukuthi umuntu ofaka isicelo sosizo lwezomthetho umpofu ngempela.Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi yi-Means Test. Umuntu ngamunye ocela usizo kumele asho ukuthi uthola malini ngenyanga njengomholo wakhe nokuthi lowo muntu unani, njengemoto noma indlu.Lapha yi-link enemininingwane yokuthi ubani okumele athole usizo lwe-Legal Aid SA. Imikhakha yezomthetho Yasemanyuvesi  amaningi inezindawo zokusiza ngezomthetho lapho amakhasimende angaletha khona izikhalo.

Inkantolo Yamacala Amancane  - Okukhokhwayo okuye kufike ema-R15 000

Uma kukhona umuntu ofuna akukhokhele into eye ifinyelele ema-R15 000 (ikhuphukile isuka ema-R12 000 kuya ema-R15 000 mhla lu-1 Ephreli 2014) ungaya eNkantolo Yamacala Amancane- Lapha uhlu lwama-SCC, angaphakathi Ezinkantolo ZikaMantshi. Angeke wasebenzisa ummeli e-SCC kodwa ungathola iseluleko esivela kummeli ukulungiselela icala lakho.Imisebenzi ye-SCC imahhala kodwa inkantolo ingafuna imadlana encane ukubhekana nezindleko zamasamaniso kanye nesithunywa senkantolo. (Lapha uhlu Lwamahhovisi Ezithunywa Zenkantolo) Ukhomishana uyena ophatha udaba aphinde anqume ukuthi ubani onecala futhi ubani ongenacala.Uma odinga ukuthi ukhokhelwe kona kungaphezu kwama-R15 000 kumele uyeke ingxenye yaleyo nkokhelo ukuze kube ama-R15 000 noma ngaphansi.

Laphaumfanekiso wenqubo yasenkantolo yamacala amancane.

Izindaba Zomthetho Owengamele Amakhasimende

Izindaba eziningi zomthetho owengamele amakhasimende zingaxazululwa ngaphandle kosizo lommeli.Bheka isigaba sethu mayelana Nomthetho Owengamele amakhasimendeochaza ngamalungelo akho nokuthi kumele uye kubani uma unenkinga.

Ama-Garnishee orders

Ama-Garnishee orders yimiyalelo yasenkantolo edinga ukuthi umqashi womuntu onezikweletu akhokhe ingxenye yomholo seyinenzalo kulabo abakweletayo, lokhu kwenzeka kubasebenzi baseNingizimu Afrika abayizigidi ezi-3. (funda kabanzi) Ucwaningo lwezinhlangano zabameli lwangonyaka we-2012 i-ENS Africalukhombisa ukuthi ukuthi iningi lama-orders aluhambi ngendlela ejwayelekile noma olukho emthethweni – abaqashi kumele bathintane nabakwa-Summit Garnishee Solutions okuyomele baphenye.

Izigungu ezisemthethweni

Izigungu ezisemthethweni zinegunya lokusiza ekuxazululeni izingxabano zezomthetho.Kuvame ukuthi kubize kahle ukusebenzisa lezi zigungu kunokuya ezinkantolo futhi izingxabano zixazululeka ngokushesha.

  • Isigungu Sokuqashisa Ngezindlu, esasungulwa Ngokomthetho Wokuqashisa Ngezindlu. Ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe, bheka isigaba sethu esimayelana  Nomasitende Nabaqashi.
  • I-CCMAyasulungwa Ngokomthetho Wezabasebenzi- ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe bheka isigaba sethu esimayelana Nomthetho Wezabasebenzi.
  • Umlawuli Wesikhwama Sezimpesheni, owasungulwa Ngokomthetho Wesikhwama Sezimpesheni. Ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe bheka isigaba sethu esimayelana Nomthetho Wamakhasimende.
  • Ungathintana Nenkantolo Yezokulingana- (laphauhlu lwazo zonke Izinkantolo zokulingana ezisezinkantolo ZikaMantshi). Noma ubani noma inhlangano ezimele noma emele abanye ingaletha icala layo Enkantolo Yezokulingana. Lezi zinkantolo zinamandla ukuletha uxolo nokuletha ukuthula, zikhiphe imiyalelo yasezinkantolo, ziyalele ukuthi kukhokhwe izinhlawulo noma ziyalele umuntu ukuthi acele uxolo.
  • Ukucwaswa okubhekiswe kuwe kungaba ngenxa yesinye sezizathu ezilandelayo: ubuhlanga, ubulili, okumayelana nobulili, ukukhulelwa, isimo sokushada, imvelaphi yokuziphatha noma inhlalo, iminyaka yobudala, ummbala, indlela yokuziphatha ngokobulili, iminyaka yobudala, ukukhubazeka, inkolo, amasiko, ulimi noma ukuzalwa. Akudingekile ukuthi ube nommeli uma uletha leli cala eNkantolo Yezokulingana. Ukubandlululwa emsebenzini kubhekelelwa yiziNkantolo Zabasebenzi.
  • Ungaphinde uthintane Nekhomishana YaseNingizimu Afrika Yamalungelo Esintu, i-The South African Human Rights Commission (i-SAHRC), ephenya ngokuphathwa budedengu kwamalungelo esintu. Bangaphinde bahlele ukuthi umuntu abe nommeli ozolwela amalungelo abo, futhi ingahambisa amacala enkantolo. I-SAHRC yisigungu esizimele esibhekene noMthethosisekelo nePhalamende kuphela. Noma ubani angasifaka isikhalo sakhe kwi-SAHRC futhi ungakwenza lokho ngaphandle kommeli. Ngokwekhomishana izinsolo zokucwasa ngokobuhlanga zenza ama-80% ezikhalo eziyi-10 000 zezikhalo zamalungelo esintu okuyisilinganiso esithokala njalo ngonyaka.
  • Uma ubona sengathi ubandlululiwe ngenxa yobulili noma isimo sezocansi, ungafaka isikhalo kwikhomishana yezokulingana ngokobulili, i-Commission on Gender Equality (i-CGE). I-GCE yisigungu esizimele esibhekene noMthethosisekelo nePhalamende kuphela. Noma ubani angasifaka isikhalo sakhe kwi-CGE futhi ungakwenza lokho ngaphandle kommeli.
  • Ungathintana namahhovisi uma ufuna baphenye ngezikhalo zakho mayelana nalokhu okulandelayo: ukuphatha noma uhulumeni ongasebenzi kahle, izikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenzisa budedengu amandla azo, ukuziphatha kabi kwezisebenzi zikahulumeni nokusetshenziswa ngenkohlakalo kwezimali zomphakathi yizisebenzi zikahulumeni. UMvikeli Womphakathi angaphinde axazulule izinkinga, aphinde adlulisele lokho kwezinye izinhlaka. Embikweni wasePhalamende wonyaka wango-Agasti 2013, uMvikeli Womphakathi waveza ukuthi ihhovisi lakhe limukele izikhalo eziyi-33 77 esikhathini esisukela onyakeni we-2012 kuya ezi-2013, ezazicishe zibe ngaphezulu ngezi-6400 ngonyaka odlule, kulezi eziyi-22 400 kwaqedwa ngazo. Laphayilapho okutholakala khona amahhovisi oMvikeli Womphakathi.

Imisebenzi ama-Attorney Pro Bono

Akusiwo Awezinhlangano Ezenza Inzuzo, ama-Profit Organizations (NPO’s) kanjalo nabantu abampofu, (labo bantu abanemali encane noma abangenamali) abadinga usizo lwezomthetho bangafaka isicelo basibhekise Ezinhlanganweni Zezomthetho Zesifundazwe eziyobheka izicelo zabo bese zizithumela kubameli nasezinhlanganweni zabameli ezinekhono odabeni olukuphethe kabi. Abameli abawenzi umsebenzi ngendlela ye-pro bono njengengxenye yokusiza umphakathi.Ngokwe-LSSA, ngonyaka we-2013 izinhlangano zezomthetho zadlulisela kubameli ngendlela ye-pro bono izikhalo ezibalelwa ezi-2000.Sicela uqaphela: ngenxa yokuthi i-NGO yakho ifake isicelo akusho ukuthi uzosizakala. Ngokomhlahlandlela ovamile, kuyoya ngobunjalo bodaba lwakho odinga kulo usizo lwezomthetho, ukuthi i-NGO imeleleke kahle, nokuthi inezitatimende zezimali ezicwaningisisiwe ukuvumela ukuthi iNhlangano Yezomthetho ikwazi ukubona ukuthi ngabe le-NGO ingakwazi yini ukuzikhokhelela izindleko zayo zezomthetho.

Ungathola uhlu olugcwele lwemininingwane yokuxhumana yesifundazwe nezinombolo esigabeni sethu esimayelanaNomthetho Wama-NGO.

Uhlukumezeke ngokwamalungelo esintu, ukubandlululwa, inkulumo enenzondo noma ukusatshiswa?

Iwili yokugcina nesivumelwano

Inhlangano Yabameli BaseNingizimu Afrikanamalungu ayo esebenzisana nawo, bahlela Isonto Likazwelonke Lamawili njalo ngonyaka, nezinkampani eziningi zabameli kanye nabameli abahlinzeka ngemisebenzi yabo, ngaphandle kwenkokhelo, mahhala, kumalunga omphakathi afisa ukubhalelwa iwili ngochwepheshe abasezingeni eliphezulu.Lokhu ngokunye kwezinhlelo zabo zikazwelonke zaminyaka yonke.Lapha yilapho okutholakala khona iwebhsayithi yeNhlangano Yabameli.

I-Pro Scriptoingabanye babahloli bamadokhumenti beforensikhi abahamba phambili eNingizimu Afrika –uma unokungabaza mayelana nokuthembakala kwedokhumenti(efana newili) ukusayina noma ukubhala ngesandla, ungabathinta lapha.

Isikhungo Sezinsiza Zezomthetho, i-Legal Resources Centre

I-LRC yisikhungo sezomthetho esizimele esingenzi inzuzo esizimisele ukusebenzisa umthetho ukuthi kutholakale ubulungiswa, intando yeningi kanye nokufezeka kwamalungelo ngokomnotho womphakathi.Lokhu bakwenzela abantu abahlaseleka kalula nabancishwe amathuba, kubandakanya abampofu, abangenamakhaya nabangenalo izwe okungelabo nemiphakathi ehlaselwe ukubandlululwa ngenxa yobuhlanga, isigaba emphakathini, ubulili, ukukhubazeka noma isizathu sesimo senhlalo, umnotho kanye nomlando.Baqashe abameli abangaphezu kwama-65 nabasebenzi basemahhovisi eGoli, eThekwini, ePitoli nase-Grahamstown futhi bavama ukusebenza nezinye izinhlangano zomphakathi.

Abameli Bamalungelo Esintu

I-LHR inhlangano ezimele yamalungelo esintu enerekhodi elide lokulwela amalungelo esintu nokubhekelela izifuno zomphakathi eNingizimu Afrika. I-LHR isebenzisa umthetho njengensiza esebenza kahle kakhulu ukuguqula nokugxilisa ukusebenza kwentando yeningi emphakathini waseNingizimu Afrika.Kuze kube manje bahlinzeka ngesihle imisebenzi yezomthetho kubantu abahlaseleka kalula, abancishwe amathuba nabantu nemiphakathi ehluphekayo, kubantu baseNingizimu Afrika nabangaphandle, abahlukunyezwe ukunyathelwa ngokungemthetho kwamalungelo abo omthethosisekelo.Banamahhovisi ezinhlangano zabameli eGoli, ePitoli naseThekwini, futhi banamahhovisi e-Stellenbosch nase-Upington.

I-ProBono.Org

I-ProBono.Org igqugquzela imisebenzi yezomthetho yamahhala kubameli abazisebenzayo ukuthi bayenzele abantu abampofu.Njengoba iNingizimu Afrika isemzabalazweni wokulwa nokubandluluwa kwabantu kanye nokubhekana nobuphofu obungapheli, i-ProBono.Org ivumela imisebenzi yamahhala yezomthetho ukuthi ihlinzekwe izinkulungwane ngezinkulungwane zabantu abaswele ngosizo lwenxanxathela yezinkampani zabameli bayo.Inhlangano yokuqala nokuwukuphela kwayo efana nayo ezweni, indlela entsha esebenza ngayo iqondisa usizo lwezemisebenzi yezomthetho esezingeni eliphezulu ebiza izigidi zamarandikubantu abahlaseleka kalula nabancishwe amathuba.Umsebenzi wabo awuhlosile kuphela ukwenza ngcono ukuhlinzekwa kwemisebenzi yezomthetho kubantu abampofu, kodwa ukugqugquzela izinguquko emsebenzini wezomthetho wenze ukuthi ugxile kakhulu ekusebenzeni kanzima ekuthuthukiseni amalungelo abampofu, nokusebenza komthetho.

Eminye yemisebenzi yabo ibandakanya ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwemisebenzi yamahhala kumakhasimende angaphezu kwezi-6 500 ngonyaka ngokusebenzisa amahhovisi ethu aseGoli nawaseThekwini; ukwenza imisebenzi evamile yezomthetho lapho kuthintwa amakhasimende ahlolwe bese edluliselwa kubameli abazimele ukuthi athole usizo lwezemisebenzi yomthetho mahhala nokusiza ababaleki abavela kwamanye amazwe masonto onke ngemisebenzi yezomthetho, abantu abanezinkinga zezindlu, abantu abahlangabezana nokuhlukunyezwa ngamaphoyisa, abathengi abanezinkinga ngemithetho yezabathengi, ama-NGO nama-CBO adinga uziso lwezomthetho, namabhizinisi amancane adinga ukuqala usizo lwezomthetho, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Ukuxazulula izingxabano ngaphandle kokuya enkantolo

Iningi lezinkinga zezomthetho zingaxazululwa ngaphandle kokuya enkantolofuthi lokhu kuvame ukuthi kube yindlela engabizi kakhulu yokuxazulula izingxabano.Izindlela ezahlukene zokuzama ukuxazulula izingxabano ngaphandle kokuya kunoma yiyiphi inkantolozibandakanya:

Ukuxoxisana – okusho ukuthi abantu abanenkinga bayaxoxisana ngenkinga yabo bese bezama ukuyixazulula ngokuthi baveze isisombululo esibalungele bobabili.

Ukulamula – ukulamula kwenzeka uma abantu ababili abanenkinga bevuma ukuthi kube nomuntu wesithathu ozongena phakathi kwabo ukubasiza ukuxazulula inkinga yabo.Kusukela ngomhla ziyi-13 Mashi 2014 eminye yemithetho elawula inqubo yaseziNkantolo ZikaMantshi yachitshiyelwafuthi manje sekuthathwe izinyathelo zokuqalisa ngokulamula okulawulwa yinkantolokwinqubo yasenkantolo.Ungafunda kabanzi laphakungani ukulamula kungcono kunombango wasenkantolo.

Isinqumo somlamuli – senzeka uma abantu abanenkinga bevuma ukuthi kube nomuntu wesithathu (obizwa ngomlamuli) olalela ukuxoxisana kwabo bese ethatha isinqumo esivumelana nazo zombili izinhlaka.

Ukukhokhelwa kombango wasenkantolo–ukuvuma ukukhokhela umbango wasenkantolo kwangonyaka we-2004 (itemu elibona ukukhokhelwa kombango wasenkantolo njengokungekho emthethweni) manje usumenyezelwe njengosemthethweni uma Inkantolo Ephezulu Yokwedluliswa kwamacala ivuma ukukhokhelwa ngesikhwama sangaphandle ezingxabanweni zezomthetho.Ngesikhathi abameli bengavumelekile ukuthatha ngaphezu kwama-25% esamba esiphelele senkokhelo, awukho umthetho eNingizimu Afrika oveza ukuthi imali eklonyelisiwe kumele ihlukaniswe kanjani phakathi komuntu ohlinzeka ngezimali kanye nofake isicelo.Zimbalwa izinhlaka ezizimele eNingizimu Afrika ezifaka imali ezingxabanweni zezomthetho, izicelo zokuthenga noma izinqumo, 'zifaka izimali nowenza isikweletu noma ofaka isicelo noma ukukhokhela umbango wasenkantolo, ukuxoxisana nokuqedela ukukhokhela isicelo esifakiwe.Inkampani ekhokhela umbango wasenkantolo akumele futhi ukuthi ibe ummeli wamarekhodi, ngoba lokhu kungenza ukuthi kube nokuchema.Kumele kube umbono wommeli ukuqedela icala lapho bekunamathuba amancane okuthi icala liwinwe, ngesikhathi ukukhokhela phambili kungase kungabi kuhle kummangali.

I-Christopher Consulting ihlinzeka ngezisombululo eziningi ezahlukene zombango wasenkantolo (ukukhokhelwa) futhi ungafunda incazelo emfishane yemisebenzi yabo Lapha.

I-Class Action Lawsuit –inqubo evumela abamangali ukuthi bathathele iqembu elithile izinyathelo zomthetho ingachazwa njengaleyo ebandakanya ukusebenza budedengu esilinganisweni esikhulu.Ngaphambi kokuthi le nqubo yenziwe, kumele umuntu aqale ngokufaka isicelo enkantolo ukuthi aqinisekiswe njengesigaba esithile somphakathi.Inqubo yesigaba esithile somphakathi eyaba yimpumelelo yalethwa ngababephakela ngezinkwa ababekhala ngecala lokulungiswa kwentengo yokuphakela ngezinkwa ecaleni laseNkantolo Yomthethosisekelo ngonyaka we-2013.Ngesikhathi ngo-Agasti 2014 asebethathe umhlalaphansi bakwa-Transnet  banikezwa imvume yokuqhubeka nomzabalazo wokulwa nezinto zokuthwala neqembu lempahla kahulumeni nezikhwama zomhlalaphansi ezimbili ababezixhasile. Abathathe umhlalaphansi ukuthola impesheni kulezi zikwama kuyovele kuzenzakalele ukuthi zingene emzabalazweni ngaphandle uma zikhetha ukuzikhiphela ngaphandle.

 

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3. Lusebenza kanjani uhlaka oluthi Uma Impumelelo ingekho – ayikho inkokhelo uma kubhekenwe nommeli? 

 

Lokhu kuphinde kwaziwe njengohlelo lwesikhashana lwenkokhelo okuchaza ukuthi ummeli noma inkampani yabameli iyobiza kuphela inkokhelo uma bephumelele ecaleni lakho.Lokhu kuyokwenza ukuthi kube nohlelo lwesikhashana lwenkokheloNgokomthetho wohlelo lwesikhashana lwenkokhelo, we-1997.(UMthetho wama-66 we-1997).Uma kwenzeka ummeli engaphumeleli ecaleni lakho, ngakho-ke angeke kwadingeka ukuthi ukhokhele noma yiziphi izindleko.Uma ummeli ephumelele uyobe esegunyazeka ukuthi akucele ukuthi ukhokhe inkokhelo eyengeziwenoma iphesenti elithile lokuqhubeka kohlangothi lolo okunqunwe ukuthi lukhokhe.

Uma inkokhelo yokuphumelela ingaphezu kwemali ejwayelekile yommeli, leyo nkokhelo ephezulu:

  • Ngeke yadlula inkokhelo yommeli ejwayelekile ngamaphesenti angaphezu kwayi-100.
  • Esimeni lapho icala lizwakala lingelemali, hhayi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-25 kwisamba semali eklonyelisiwe noma yiliphi elinye inani iKhasimende ngokomphumela wenqubo yasenkantolo.
  • Izicelo zokukhokhelwa ngenkinga yezomthetho
  • Izicelo zemali Yesikhwama Sezingozi Zomgwaqo, i-Road Accident Fund (RAF )
  • Izicelo zemali ngenxa yobudedengu kwezokwelashwa
  • Izicelo zezimali zezinkinga zomthetho zomphakathi, isibonelo, izicelo zemali ezibhekiswe kuNgqongqoshe Wamaphoyisa, Wezempilo, Ezokuthutha ne-SANRAL.

Inkokhelo yesikhashana kumele isebenze kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo:

Ukuvakasha okokuqala ukuhlola isicelo sakho kuvama ukuthi kube mahhala.Ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nesigaba sethuUmthetho Wokulimala Komuntu.

 

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4. Yimiphi imibandela okumele ibhekwe ngaphambi kokuhambisa enkantolo inkinga yezomthetho?  

 

Uma ungakwazi ukuxazulula ingxabano ngenqubo yokuxoxisana, futhi uma ingekho enye indlela yezomthetho ekhona engasetshenziswa, ungayofuna ukuthi kulungiswe yinkantolo.Noma yisiphi isimo, noma ubani oyingxenye yengxabano unekhambi uma kungenzeka kube kunelungelo lakhe elicindezekile, noma unendlela yokuzivikela ezwakalayo ngezinsolo asolwa ngazo. Lo mgomo uvezwa ubala ngesisho esithi Ubi jus ibi remedium – lapho okunelungelo khona, kunekhambi.

Kodwa-ke impendulo yombuzo wofake isicelo othi: ‘Ngabe nginelungelo?’ isinyathelo sokuqala ekuqaliseni inqubo yezomthetho. Eminye imibuzo okumele iphendulwe yilena:

  • Yiyiphi inkantolo okumele kuyiwe kuyo? Okunye okusemqoka mayelana nalokhu umthetho wezindlela zokusebenza wezimbangela zokusebenza ezinkantolo ezahlukene, owagcina ukuchibiyelwa mhla lu-1Juni 2014. Funda kabanzi ngomthetho wezindlela zokusebenza kwazozombili izinkantoloIzinkantolo ZesifundaNezinkantolo Zezindawo.
  • Yiyiphi indlela okumele inqubo iyithathe?
  • Yisiphi isixazululo okumele sifunwe?
  • Yimaphi amadokhumenti okumele afunwe?
  • Yisiphi isaziso okumele sinikezwe olunye uhlangothi?
  • Yibuphi ubufakazi okumele bulethwe enkantolo?
  • Yiyiphi inqubo okumele ilandelwe enkantolo?
  • Yikuphi okumele kwenziwe ukwenza noma yisiphi isinqumo esingathathwa yinkantolo?
  • Yiyiphi inkantolo okungadluliselwa kuyo icala uma isinqumo senkantolo singajabulisi? 

 

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5. Yiziphi izinhlobo ezahlukene zezinhlawulo umuntu angazifakela isicelo semali nokuthi zingahlolwa kanjani? 

 

Uma ubhekene nokulimala, ukulahlekelwa noma ukumosakalelwa ngenxa yesenzo somunye umuntu noma ukuhluleka kwakhe ukwenza okuthile, ungafaka isicelo sokunxeshezelwa noma unganxeshezelwa yilowo muntu uma ungakuqinisekisa:

  • Ukuthi wephule isivumelwano, noma
  • Ukuthi wenze okungalunganga (ukwenza okubi) njengokulimaza umuntu noma ukumehlisa isithunzi
  • Abondliwayo bangafaka isicelo semali yokulahlekelwa ukusekelwa ngokwezimali
  • Umabi wamafa, omele amafa omufi, angafaka isicelo senhlawulo ngenxa yobuhlungu nokuhlukumezeka okwenzeka kumufi uma inqubo ebevele eseyiqalile.
  • Kungafakwa isicelo sezindleko zomngcwabo.
  • Kungafakwa isicelo sezindleko zokwelashwa nezasesibhedlela ngaphambi kokushona.

Ukwephula Isivumelwano – inhlawulo yokwephulwa kwesivumelwano, okufana nokuthenga nokudayisa, inikezwa ngomgomo wokuthi, yize kukhokhiwe, uhlangothi olulimele kumele lukwazi ukuba sesimeni esifanayo sezezimali akakade ekuso ukuba isivumelwano senziwe kahle, noma ngabe ukwephulwa kwesivumelwano kubi noma ngabe kuhle ngokwanele ukuthi kubonakale kufanele ukuthi isivumelwano sesulwe.Inhlawulo engatholakala ngokwenzenjalo kungaba ukulahlekelwa yimali okwangempela (damnum emergens) nokuthola inzuzo eyimali (lucrum cessans).Bheka isigaba sethu mayelana Nomthetho Wesivumelwano ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe.

Ukulimala– ngokuvamile, inhlawulo yokulimala ivela ekwenzeni okubi (civil wrong) kusho umehluko phakathi kwesimo samanje sezimali zommangali nohulumeni akade engaba kuso ukuba leso senzo esibi asizange senzeke.Inhlawulo yalokho okulahlekile, okungase kulahleke esikhathini esizayo kanye nokunxeshezelwa ngenxa yobuhlungu nokukhubazeka.Ngemininingwane eyengeziwe bheka isigaba sethu mayelana Nomthetho Wokulimala komuntu.

Ukwehliswa isithunzi–lapho isithunzi sommangali sicekeleke phansi, kukhokhwa isinxephezelo ngenxa yokwethukwa, ukwehliswa isithunzi kanye nokuhlukumezeka. Ngemininingwane eyengeziwe bheka isigaba sethu esimayelana Nomthetho obhekele ukwehliswa isithunzi.

Ukulinyazwa kwempahla–lapho impahla yakho ilinyazwe noma ishabalaliswe ngokungemthetho, inhlawulo yakho ingahlolwa ngokulahlekelwa ngokwenani lempahla yakho ngesikhathi ilinyazwa. Izindleko zokulungisa zingalungelana nendlela elinganayo uma kudingeka futhi kulungile, uma zingekho ngaphezu kwezindleko zokuthola okusha futhi uma ziyobuyisela impahla esimeni sayo esidala. Yize ungafaka isicelo sokunxeshezelwa ngokulahlekelwa nokutshenziswa kwenzalo, ukulahlekelwa makungahluki kakhulu-kumele kukwazi ukuthi kukholakale kumuntu nje-futhi kumele uthathe izinyathelo ezifanele ukukunciphisa.

Ukulahlekelwa emva kokushonelwa – kungenzeka ukuthi uthathe izinyathelo zomthetho ezine ezehlukene ngokulahlekelwa okuvela ngenxa yengozi ebulalayo:

Okunye okubi okwenzekayo:

Ukuthikamezeka kwesithunzi – (njengoba kuphikisana nokuhlonipheka, okungukwehliswa isithunzi) kuvame ukuthathwa ngendlela efanayo nokwehliswa isithunzi.

Ubufebe– inhlawulo iya ngokuthinteka kwesithunzi nomshado wommangali, imibandela eyenza isimo sibe sibi noma sibe sihle iyabhekelelwa.NgoSepthemba we-2014 Inkantolo Enkulu Yokudlulisa Amacala yaqeda lo mthetho yawubiza ngokuthi  ‘usudlulelwe yisikhathi’ futhi ubuyisa isikhathi lapho indoda  ‘ibona umfazi wayo eyimpahla yayo’ –inkantolo yabeka ukuthi ‘uma abalingani bengasenakho ukuzibophezela, umshado uyophela futhi isijeziso esibhekiswe komunye kubukeka singeke sakuguqula lokho’.

Ukuboshelwa ubala nokugwetshwa.Umthetho ofanayo uyasebenza emacaleni abandakanya ukushushiswa okunesihluku, ukuboshelwa ubala nokugwetshwa.

Ukungenelela okungekho emthethweni ebhizinisini noma ekuhwebeni – inhlawulo kumele igcine isimo sezezimali zommangali ngaphambi kokwenzeka kwesenzo esingekho emthethweni.

Ukwephulwa kwelungelo lomqambi–  Ngokomthetho Owengamele Ilungelo Lomqambi, imithetho ekhethekile eyengamele inhlawulo kulandela isenzo sokwephula ilungelo lomqambi.

Ukuhlukunyezwa kwelungelo elisobala – singafakwa isicelo senzuzo eyenziwe ummangalelwa. (bheka i-Patents Act)

 

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6. Ummeli wami uliwinile icala lami, kubandakanya nezindleko. Usenginikeze iphepha lezindleko.Lokhu kusebenza kanjani? 

 

Zi-2 izinhlobo zezindleko:

Izindleko ze-Party-and-partyokuyizindleko ezivela ngesikhathi sokuthethwa kwecala. Ngokuvamile yizindleko ze-part-and-party kuphela, isilinganiso sazo esibekwe ngesilinganiso esisemthethweni, ezinikwa lowo ophumelele ecaleni: ngamanye amagama ophumelele ecaleni unikwa izindleko njengezindleko zommeli ngokuthi athathe imiyalelo, abhale amasamaniso, aphendule isikhalo sabamangalelwa, izicelo zeminye imininingwane, ukulungiselela icala nokuvela enkantolo. Ukuchibiyelwa kwakamuva kwenkokhelo kuqale ukusebenza mhla zingama-24 Febhruwari 2015.

Izindleko ze-Attorney-and-client eziyizindleko ezingaphezukwezindleko ze-party-and-party lezo ummeli anokufaka isicelo sazo kwikhasimende lakhe  ngemisebenzi akasuke eyenzele lonafuthi okumele zikhokhwe akukhathalekile ukuthi icala lihambe kanjani.Lokhu kubandakanya izindleko ezivele ngaphambi kokuthi kuqale inqubo yecala.Kodwa-ke izindleko zombono wommeli ngaphambi kokuthi kuqale icala azisiyo ingxenye yezindleko ze-party-and-party costs.

Khumbula ukuthi isilinganiso esisemthethweni sezindleko sisebenza uma singekho isivumelwano esiphakathi kwakho nommeli wakho sokuthi kumele kubizwe imali ephezulu.

 

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7. Yimiphi eminye yemisebenzi yezomthetho yansukuzonke eyenziwa ummeli? 

 

Ummeli uthintana ngqo nekhasimende futhi uzinikele ukwenza imisebenzi yezomthetho yansukuzonke efana:

  • Ukuthenga nokudayisa impahla
  • Ukubhaliswa kwesivumelwano semalimboleko yokuthenga indlu
  • Ukubhalwa kwamawili nezivumelwano
  • Ukubhaliswa kwezinkampani
  • Ukulawulwa kwamafa omuntu oseshonile
  • Ukufakwa kwezicelo zezincwadi nezimvume
  • Ukulungiselela nokuphatha amacala asenkantolo

Nantu uhlu  Lwezinkantolo ZikaZwelonke Eziphakeme andMasters of the High Court, nalu uhlu Lwezinkantolo ZikaMantshi 

 

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8. Umuntu ukulungele kanjani ukuthi asebenze njengoMmeli eNingizimu Afrika? 

 

Izidingo zokwamukelwa kwabameli eNingizimu Afrika zigunyazwe Umthetho Wabameli wama-53 we-1979kanye nemithetho esakazwe ngokwalo Mthetho.Izidingo okuyizona ezisemqoka yilezi ezilandelayo:

Ukufaneleka Komuntu-umuntu kumele athathwe njengofanele nolungele yiNhlangano Yabameli kanye Nenkantolo Ephakeme ngaphambi kokuthi amukelwe ukuthi abe ummeli.

Iziqu Zezemfundo-iziqu zezemfundo okuyizona ezivumelekile ukuze umuntu amekeleke ukuthi abe ummeli yiziqu ze-LLB (ubude besikhathi sokuzifundela asikho ngaphansi kweminyaka emi-4) zitholakala kunoma yiyiphi inyuvesi yaseRiphabhlikhi.Kusukela ngo-2015, abafundi abafisa ukufundela ezomthetho eNyuvesi yase-Wits, kuyodingeka baqale baqede iziqu zeminyaka emithathu ze-BA Law noma ze-BCom Law ngaphambi kokuthi benze uhlelo lwe-LLB lweminyaka emibili lwangemva kweziqu–amanye amanyuvesi asengalandela.Lapha uhlulwemikhakha yezomthetho yasemanyuvesi.

Ukuhlolelwa Ukwamukelwa Kwabameli-kumele kuqedelwe ngempumelelo ngaphambi kokwemukelwa.

Ukusebenza ngaphansi kwe-Articles of Clerkship noma isivumelwano somsebenzi wolwazi olufanele lwezomthetho-ukuhlinzekwa kwenziwe ukuthi umuntu angafaka isicelo sokungafakwa ngapahnsi komsebenzi oyisivumelwano uma eseqede isikhathi esiyiminyaka emihlanu endaweni ‘yolwazo olufanele’

Ukuqeqeshwa ngokwezomthetho okuyimpoqo-umuntu kumele athamele izifundo zokuqeqeshelwa ezomthetho, eziqokwe yinhlangano Yezomthetho YaseNingizimu Afrika.

Ukulawulwa kokusebenza okuyimpoqo-izifundo zokulawulwa kokusebenza seziphoqelelwe ukuthi bonke abameli okumele banikezwe izitifiketi zabo zokuqala ze-Fidelity Fund Certificate, kulandela umhla ziyi-14 Agasti 2009.

Kuyiqiniso, umuntu ‘akakhulile kakhulu’ ukuthi usengafunda noma abe ummeli, ukuthola ugqozifunda kabanzi ngoCornelia Leonard, we-Leonard Attorneys eGoli, owavula inkampani yakhe yabameli ngonyaka we-2014 eneminyaka yobudala engama-66, kanye noNelson Mandela owathola iziqu zakhe ze-LLB ngonyaka we-1989 eneminyaka yobudala engama-69. Ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe thintana neNhlangano YaseNingizimu Afrika Yezomthetho.

 

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9. Yini imisebenzi yommeli ogunyazwe uhulumeni nommeli osebenza ngokuthengiswa nokudayiswa kwempahla?  

 

Ummeli obhala izivumelwanoummeli okuthi emva kokuphumelela ekuhlolweni okudingekayo, amukelwe Yinkantolo Ephakeme njengommeli obhala izivumelwano.Ummeli obhala izivumelwano kuphela onelungelo lokudweba, aqinsekise anikeze ubufakazi besivumelwano esibhalwe phansi, esifana nesivumelwano somshado ohlukanisa amafa, ukwenza izivumelwanozokusebenzisa umhlaba womunye umuntu, ilungelo lokuqasha isikhathi eside nelungelo lemvume kwezezimayini.

Ummeli obhala izivumelwano uphinde aqinisekise amanye amadokhumenti asemthethweni.Noma yisiphi isivumelwano esibhalwe phansi esidlula kummeli obhala izivumelwano siba nophawu olukhethekile olunamathiselwe kuso, futhi ikhophi yaso kumele igcinwe ummeli obhala izivumelwanoomqingweni wakhe (ifayela elikhethekile) okumele lifakwe izimpawu, lihlanganiswe isikhathi ngesikhathi, bese ligcinwa endaweni ephephile.

Ummeli othengiselanayoummeli okuthi uma esephumelele ekuhlolweni kwakhe kwezomthetho, afunde inqubo yokuthengiselana Ngokomthetho Wabameli we-1979, bese emukelwa Yinkantolo Ephakeme njengommeli owengamele ukudayiswa kwezindlu.

Abameli bokuthengiselana benza (phakathi kwezinye izinto) izivumelwano zokuguqulwa kobunikazi nokuthengiselana ngezindlu nokufaka lezo zivumelwano efayilini lokubhaliswa kwezindlu (bheka Umthetho Wokubhaliswa Kwezindlu), lapho liphenduka libe yirekhodi lomphakathi.Ubumeli bokuthengiselana wumkhakha okhetheke kakhulu futhi ngokweNhlangano yezoMthetho bayi-5001 abameli bokuthengiselana eNingizimu Afrika. 

 

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10. Zihlukaniswe kanjani izigungu ezisemqoka zomthetho eNingizimu Afrika? 

 

Umthetho Wamazwe Ngamazwe , kwesinye isikhathi ubizwa ngokuthi umthetho womphakathi wamazwe ngamazwe uqukethe leso sigungu somthetho esilawula ubudlelwane phakathi kwamazwe ngesikhathi soxolo, impi kanye nokungachemi.

Ukungqubuzana Kwemithetho kwesinye isikhathi kubizwa ngomthetho wangasese wamazwe ngamazwekudingida inkinga yokukhetha ukuthi yiyiphi indlela yomthetho engasetshenziswa engxabanweni ebandakanya okwangaphandle futhi lapho okungabandakanyeka khona izindlela ezimbili noma ngaphezulu.

Umthetho Kazwelonkekokunye ubizwa ‘ngomthetho wezwe’futhi uchaza isigungu semithetho yezomthetho esetshenziswa ngaphakathi emngceleni walo.

Umthetho Wenqubo uqukethe isigungu semithetho elawula ukuhlonishwa kwamalungelo anikezwa ngaphansi komthetho omkhulu, futhi uqukethe umthetho wenqubo yasemphakathini neyasenkantolo, nomthetho wobufakazi, ochaza ukuthi amaqiniso amayelana nodaba angaqinisekiswa kanjani ecaleni lasemphakathini nelasenkantolo.

Umthetho Omkhulu uqukethe lezo zigaba zomthetho ezibhekene nokwakhiwa, ukusebenzisa kanye nokuqedwa kwamalungelo nemisebenzi, futhi ungahlukaniswa phakathi komthetho womphakathi nomthetho wangasese.

1. Umthetho Womphakathi ulawula ubudlelwane phakathi kombuso nabantu bawo, uqukethe umthetho wokuphatha, umthetho womthethosisekelo, umthetho wasezinkantolo, umthetho wezabasebenzi nomthetho wentela.

2. Umthetho Wangaseseumayelana nabantu bombuso nobudlelwane babo.Ubandakanya umthetho wabantu nomndeni, umthetho wezamabhizinisi (oqukethe umthetho wezinkampani, umthetho wezokuxoxisana nomthetho wokuwa kwamabhizinisi), umthetho wempahla, umthetho wokulandelana nomthetho wezibopho (ongaphinde uhlukaniswe ube umthetho wezivumelwano, umthetho wokwenza okubi nomthetho wokuzicebisa ngokungalungile.)

Lezi zigaba ezingenhla azibandakanyi zonke izigaba zomthetho, ukwengeza ekubeni khona kobudlelwane obukhona phakathi kwezigaba zomthetho ezahlukene. 

 

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11. Yini isakhiwo sezinkantolo eNingizimu Afrika? 

 

Izinkantolo ezivamile yilezi:

  • Inkantolo Yomthethosisekelo:isichibiyelo se-17 somthethosisekelo siqinisekisa Inkantolo Yomthethosisekelo njengenkantolo ephakeme yezwe. Lo Mthetho uphinde ubhale kabusha Isigaba se-167 Somthethosisekelo ukuveza ukuthi Inkantolo Yomthethosisekelo inesibopho kuzo zonke izindaba ezimayelana nomthethosisekelo nakunoma yiluphi udaba engabona ukuthi kumele ludluliselwe phambili.
  • Inkantolo ephakeme yokudluliselwa kwamacala
  • Izinkantolo Eziphakeme
  • Izinkantolo zesifunda nezikaMantshi
  • Izinkantolo zamacala amancane
  • Izinkantolo zomphakathi nezinkantolo zamakhosi nezinduna
  • Inkantolo Yokudluliselwa Kwamacala Abasebenzi:ibhekene nokudluliswa kwamacala avela Enkantolo Yabasebenzi. Ukuchibiyelwa Komthethosisekelo kwe-17 kwenza ukuthi kungabe kusenzeka ukuthi kudluliselwe amacala asenkantolo Yokudluliselwa kwamacala Abasebenzi eNkantolo Ephakeme Yokudlulisela Amacala–kunalokho izinhlaka ezithintekayo kumele ziye eNkantolo Yomthethosisekelo okumele ibone ukuthi iyavuma yini ukuthi icala lidluliswe.
  • Inkantolo Yabasebenzi:ibhekana nezingxabano ezingaphansi  Komthetho Obhekele Abasebenzi
  • Izinkantolo zokudliwa komhlaba:zibhekana nezindaba zokudliwa komhlaba nezokuqashisa ngomhlaba
  • Izinkantolo Zemindeni:zibhekana nezindaba zemindeni, ezifana nezahlukaniso (ziwela ngaphansi Kwenkantolo Yesifunda)
  • Izinkantolo Zesondlo
  • Izinkantolo Zentsha
  • Izinkantolo Zezingane
  • Izinkantolo Zentela
  • Izinkundla Zamanzi
  • Izinkantolo Zokulingana
  • Izinkantolo zamakhosi nezinduna

Izinkantolo ezibhekene namacala akhethekile:

Izinkantolo ezahlukene zaseNingizimu Afrika nenqubo yokudlulisa nokubuyekeza icala:

courts

 

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12. Yini umsebenzi wenhlangano yabameli? 

 

Inhlangano Yabameli BaseNingizimu Afrika yisigungu esilawula umsebenzi wezomthethoeNingizimu Afrika. Ihlanganisa amalungu ayo ayisithupha-Inhlangano Yabameli Abamnyama, i-Cape Law Society, i- Kwazulu-Natali Law Society, i-Law Society Yezifundazwe Zasenyakatho, i-Free State Law Society, kanye NeNhlangano Kazwelonke Yabameli Bentando Yeningi.

Ngokomthetho Wabameli, 1979, abameli eNingizimu Afrika babhaliswe ohlwini lokusebenza ngokwesimiso somthetho, wenhlangano yabameli besifundazwe lapho besebenzela khona.

Abameli abase:

Gauteng, North-West Province, Mpumalanga nase-Limpopo

Izinhlangano Zezomthetho Ezifundazweni ZaseNyakatho

Ucingo(012) 338 5800

www.northernlaw.co.za

Free State

Law Society of the Free State

Ucingo (051)447 3237

www.fs-law.co.za

KwaZulu-Natali

KwaZulu-Natal Law Society

Ucingo(033) 3451394

www.lawsoc.co.za

I-Western, Eastern ne-Northern Cape

Cape Law Society

Ucingo(021)443 7600

www.capelawsoc.law.za

Ngokomthetho Wabameli, 1979, Abameli bawela ngaphansi kwamandla okulawula nokuqondisakwenhlangano yezifundazweyezomthetholapho besebenzela khona.Izinhlangano zezomthetho zisebenzela izifuno zomphakathi futhi zilungele ukuphenya izikhalo ezilethwa kuzo ngokuzethemba neziwela ngaphansi kwamandla azo.

 

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13. Ungangivikela kanjani Umthetho omusha Ovimbela Ukusatshiswa uma ngisatshiswa? 

 

Umthetho omusha Ovimbela Ukusatshiswaowaqala ukusebenza mhla zingama-27 Ephreli 2013, okuvumela ukuthi ufune incwadi ekuvikela ukuthi ungahlukunyezwa yinoma ubani okusabisayongokuthi akuqonde noma okuthumelela imiyalezo ngocingo.

Esikhathini esidlule bewuthola incwadi evikela ohlukunyezwayo enkantolo kamantshi kuphela uma lowo okuhlukumezayo enobudlelwano basemndenini nawe (bhekaUMthetho Obhekele Udlame Lwasemndenini, we-1998) futhi yayisebenza kubantu abathembisene umshado, abashadile, abahlala ndawonye noma ababehlala ndawonye noma abangumzali nomntwana. Uma usatshiswa omunye umuntu nje kwakuyomele ufake isicelo enkantolo ephakeme ukuthi babanike umyalelo obavimba ukuthi bakwesabise.

Uma ukholwa ukuthi uyasatshiswa ungenza isitatimende sakho esifungelwe enkantolo kamantshi bese uthola incwadi yesikhashana evikela ohlukunyezwayo.Isaziso sesicelo sencwadi evikela ohlukunyezwayo kumele sihanjiswe kummangalelwa futhi kumele sisho ukuthi owephule umthetho uyovela nini enkantolo.

Uma ubona sengathi wehliswe isithunzi ungafunda kabanzi laphaNgomthetho Obhekele Ukwehliswa Isithunzi. 

 

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14. Kumele ngenzenjani uma ngisatshiswa noma ngethuselwa ngesikweletu engingasikweleti? 

 

Ngeshwa lokhu kwehlela abantu abaningi ngenxa yama-akhawunti amadala nangekho, izikweletu nezindleko ezindala zikamasipala.Okuningi kwalokhu kumayelana nendlela ukuqoqwa kwezikweletu okwenzeka ngayo yizikhungo zezingcingo eziphethwe abameli.

Lokhu kubandakanya:

  • Ukusabisa ngokubika ngaleso sikweletu enhlanganweni ebhekene nezikweletu futhi okungahambisani NoMthetho Kazwelonke Wezikweletu Wama-34 We-2005.
  • Ukusabisa ngokuthathela izinyathelo zomthetho noma ukunikeza isephulelo uma uvuma ukuyikhokha i-akhawunti.
  • Ukusatshiswa ngama-sms, ukuthola izingcingo ezinobuluhlaza ezivela kubasebenzi abaqoqa imali kanye nezincwadi eziningana ezifuna imali.
  • Ukufuna abakweletayo ukuthi baveze isiqiniseko sokuthi abayikweleti le mali eshiwoyo ngesikhathi kungumsebenzi walowo okweletwayo ukuthi aveze ubufakazi besikweletu. Ukuhluleka ukuhlinzeka amakhasimende ngezitatimende zama-akhawunti uma zidingeka.
  • Uma ummeli eqhubeka enika lowo okweletayo izincwadi eziningana zokufuna imali (ama-sms), azi kahle ukuthi le ngxabano yezomthetho mayelana nesikweletu sekubhekenwe nayo, leyo ndlela yokuziphatha yommeli iyothathwa njengokusabisa futhi ibonakale njengokungaziphathi kahle ngasohlangothini lommeli.
  • Isikhalo singahanjiswa sisiwe enhlanganweni yabameli ukuze kuphenywe ngokuqondiswa kwezigwegwe uma ummeli eqhubeka nokuziphatha ngendlela ephatha kabi ikhasimendelakhe.

Mayelana nalokhu Umqondisi Wenhlangano Yabameli Ezifundazweni ZaseNyakatho usanda kusho lokhu okulandelayo: 

 

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15. Kumele ngenzenjani uma ngisatshiswa noma ngethuselwa ngesikweletu engingasikweleti?

 

  • Uma unika ummeli imali, noma kungaba yidiphosithi yemali yezindleko zezomthetho noma idiphosithi noma imali ephelele yempahla oyithengayo – ummeli wakho kumele abeke imali yakho kwi-trust account. Inzalo etholakalayo ngaleyo mali ihlangene yenza izigidi ezingama-R213 million eyafakwa esikhwameni se-Attorney’s Fidelity Fund ngonyaka we-2011.
  • Lesi sikhwama yisigungu esisemthethweni esasungulwa salawulwa UMthetho Wabamelifuthi sihlinzeka ngomshawalensi osezingeni eliphezulu wokunxeshezelwa kwabameli uma bebhekene namacala okuntshontshelwa. Ukulahlekelwa okubhekelelwa yilesi sikhwama kubandakanya ukwebiwa kwemali ngaphambi kokubhaliswa kwezindlu, ukwebiwa kwemali evela emafeni abantu abashonile, nokwebiwa kwemali ekhokhelwa ukulimala kwabantu. Ngale ndlela lesi sikhwama sihlinzeka ngesinxephezelo ezingeni lomsebenzi ngendlela engenzi inzuzo,  I-Attorneys Insurance Indemnity Fund.
  • Ukuvikeleka okuhlinzekwa yilesi Sikhwama kukhuthaza umphakathi ukuthi uyisebenzise ngokwethemba imisebenzi ehlinzekwa yizisebenzi zezomthetho.
  • NgokoMthetho Wabameli, ngaphandle uma unika ummeli umyalelo wokuthi akongele imali yakho ukuze uthole inzuzo ngokwesigaba sama-78(2A) salo Mthetho, angeke wakhokhelwa inzalo etholakale emalini yakho, futhi asikho isibopho sezomthetho kummeli wakho ukuthi akwazise ngalokho. Qiniseka ukuthi wena, njengekhasimende, uyaziswa ngakho konke okungamalungelo akho ngokomthetho ukuze ukwazi ukuthatha isinqumo esiphusile.
  • Ngesikhathi i-Attorneys Insurance Indemnity Fund (AIIF) ihlinzeka ngesinga eliphansi lesinxephezelo somsebenzi, uma le khava isiphelile, abaqondisi/abalingani enhlanganweni yabamelibayabophezeleka ngokuhlanganyela futhi kakhulu kunoma yiyiphi enye inkokhelo eyengeziwe yekhava ehlinzekwa yi-AIIF. Lokhu kungaba nemiphumela esabekayo enhlanganweni yabameli futhi abameli bangafunda ngokwengeziwe mayelana nesidingo se-top-up coverlapha.  Buza ukuthi ngabe inhlangano yabameli bakho inawo yini umshuwalense ofanele we-PI.

 

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